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How to Create a Brand Identity?

How to Create a Brand Identity?
What is Brand Identity? Definitions Business Dictionary: The visible elements of a brand (such as colors, design, logotype, name, symbol) that together identify and distinguish the brand in the consumers’ mind. Investopedia: How a business wants a brand’s name, communication style, logo and other visual elements to be perceived by consumers. Kapferer’s Brand Identity Prism Model: The brand identity prism by Kapferer describes the brand through six different facets. The identity of a brand describes what makes it stand out and special, as well as the attractiveness of the brand. By the brand’s physique the physical appearance is meant. This includes a prototype of the brand: the product that represents the brand’s qualities. The brand personality connects the brand with human characteristics to differentiate. It is the way a brand speaks to its customers. Every brand tries to build a relationship with its customers. This relationship is more obvious for service brands, but product brands like Porsche and Morgan build relationships with their clients The question here is what role does the brand occupy in the relationship. It could be being a friend or being dominant. The culture of the company is reflected by the values the brand is communicating. Values can be linked for example to the origin of the company and their heritage. The reflection of a brand can be seen as the typical user of the product it is the outward mirror of the brand. It therefore often gets confused with the target market. The self-image is the way customers see themselves when using the brand and how this makes them feel. (Kapferer, 2012)     Pic Courtesy: Marketing91 What are the top 3 things that make customers loyal to a brand? Quality – Quality in business, engineering and manufacturing has a pragmatic interpretation as the non-inferiority or superiority of something; it is also defined as fitness for purpose.  Quality is a perceptual, conditional, and somewhat subjective attribute and may be understood differently by different people. Customer Service – The process of ensuring customer satisfaction with a product or service. Often, customer service takes place while performing a transaction for the customer, such as making a sale or returning an item. Customer service can take the form of an in-person interaction, a phone call, self-service systems, or by other means. Price – For many consumers, price is a very important attribute. The attribute price can indeed be more important on decision making than that of quality, brand name and others. can conclude that consumer consideration to decide product brand is mainly based on price. The main question is how consumer brand decision is effected by price fluctuations. Does consumer move to another brand as price rise? Branding Gone Bad : Pizza Hut Tries to Lose the Pizza For some bizarre reason, Pizza Hut made an attempt to rebrand in 2009 by calling themselves “The Hut.” As a result, the fast food chain received a significant amount of ridicule from the public, and had to revert back to the original name. Although the company may deny rumors regarding the name change, photographic evidence of the redesigned logo are still circulating online. When British Airways Removed the Union Jack In 1997, British Airways executive Bob Ayling stated, “Perhaps we need to lose some of our old-fashioned Britishness and take on board some of the new British traits.” The company then embarked on a project that saw the Union Jack tail fin flag being replaced with other designs. After receiving numerous complaints from customers, this decision was reversed in 2001 when Ayling was replaced by Rod Eddington, and the Union Jack was once again painted on the fleet’s tail fins. Source: Six Examples of Branding...
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Sole Proprietorship

Sole Proprietorship
Sole Proprietorship – Features and Advantages Sole Proprietorship is a business owned and controlled by only one person. The proprietor who sows, reaps and harvests the output of his labor owns all the assets in his firm. This form of business organization is one of the most popular forms in India and the reason being the advantages it offers. Here, business can be started simply after obtaining necessary manufacturing license and permit. Setting up Process: Setting up a sole proprietorship entity is trouble-free as compared to other form of companies. Unlike Limited Liability Partnership (LLP) or any other private or public companies; in sole proprietorship you do not need to file an application to ROC- Registrar of Companies. You need to choose a name for your business, open a bank account and take license for varied services including Service Tax, VAT, IEC, Shops & Establishment license, PAN, Importer Exporter Code, ESI, Professional Tax, Central Excise Duty, CST Registration, Employee Provident Fund Registration etc. After acquiring the respective licenses one can commence with his her sole proprietorship firm in India. Some important licenses you may need for starting a sole proprietorship firm in India: PAN CARD Permanent Account Number (PAN) is a ten-digit alphanumeric number, issued in the form of a laminated card, by the Income Tax Department. It is mandatory to quote PAN on return of income, all correspondence with any income tax authority. A typical PAN is AABPS1205E. A complete overview of pancard  can be seen at – http://www.incometaxindia.gov.in/pan/overview.asp New PAN CARD application – https://tin.tin.nsdl.com/pan/ TAN CARD Tax Deduction Account Number (TAN) is an alphanumeric number issued to individuals who are required to deduct tax on payments made by them under the Indian Income Tax Act, 1961. The Tax Deducted at Source on payments made by assessees has to be deposited under the following number to enable the assessees who have received the payments to claim the tax deducted in their income tax return. So TAN is the abbreviation for Tax deduction and collection Account Number. Application for tan card – https://tin.tin.nsdl.com/tan/ SERVICE TAX REGISTRATION Service tax has to be paid to the Government of India by the service provider who collects the same form his customers. As on 1st May, 2006,   95 services are identified as taxable services in India.  Section 64 of the Finance Act, 1994, extends the levy of service tax to the whole of India, except the State of Jammu & Kashmir. The current rate is 12.36 % on the gross value of the service. Service tax can be paid online – https://www.aces.gov.in/ VAT AND CST VAT (Value Added Tax) is a form of indirect tax imposed only on goods sold within a particular state, which essentially means that the buyer and the seller exist in the same state. Only when tangible goods and products are sold, VAT can be imposed. VAT (Value Added Tax) is governed by respective state Acts. Every state has a separate and distinct VAT act reserved for their state. CST (Central Sales Tax) is a form of indirect tax imposed only on goods sold from one state to another state, which particularly takes into account that the buyer and the seller exist in two different states. CST (Central Sales Tax) is governed by Central Sales Tax Act, 1956. This tax is governed by a single central act, though the chargeability is state specific. Registration for VAT AND CST IN Tamil Nadu – http://www.tnvat.gov.in/English/NewDealerRegist.aspx THE BUSINESS VIABILITY CHECKLIST FOR ENTREPRENEURS IMPORT EXPORT CODE: DGFT – Directorate General of Foreign Trade runs various schemes for trade promotion and facilitation. Using this facility you may file, prepare and track online application in...
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Strategic Vision for Success

Strategic Vision for Success
Strategic Vision for Success in International Market Some business firms with a modest and humble beginning make it to the top in a very short span of time. How do you think this is possible? Success does not come that easy. You have to have real focus backed up by solid strategies for such resounding success. Some people formulate strategies and follow suit, some flow along with the stream of situations and react accordingly, rather than merely plotting strategies. Mere strategizing is not enough, you have to look into the actual situation and how it would affect your operations. A strategy is a comprehensive plan of action that sets critical direction and guides the allocation of resources to achieve long-term organizational objectives. Let us have a clear understanding on the reasons for formulating a strategy: Business has gone global for many reasons, including reactive ones like, international competition, customer demands and trade barriers, and proactive ones like seeking economies of scale, new international markets, resource access and cost savings. After the liberalization, globalization and privatization processes activated in full swing, many firms have come to the limelight in the international market scenario, which has provided them with a solid head start. Companies have to respond to both changes in the external environment and emerging opportunities. An opportunity not well utilized is an opportunity lost. Rational planning is called for to meet international expansion through workable strategies. International corporate strategy is purely based on the intentions of your firm, the objectives that stem out from your vision and can be materialized by scanning the environment for threats and opportunities, assessing the internal strengths and weaknesses of the firm, considering alternative international entry strategies and firming up on the workable ones. List down the answers to the following questions and you may arrive at a reasonable conclusion on your company’s market standing.  Strengths:  What are your advantages? What is the activity that you specialize in? What is your uniqueness that differentiates you from your competitors? Your own viewpoint and that of the people you deal with is necessary. It is important to be honest and realistic. This exercise helps you and your team to understand the mission and purpose.  Weaknesses:  What is done badly? What could be done better? What should be avoided? What causes problems or complaints? To identify the unpleasant truths as quick as possible is the notion of this exercise. Ascertain Your Priorities: After ascertaining the priorities, the strategic management process is carried out with well laid plans, executed by professional strategists followed by implementation of control and evaluation procedures. Many corporate firms go for strategic alliances, that may include, acquisitions, mergers, joint ventures, strategic partnerships, cartel agreements and so on to survive in the international market as well as to exploit the opportunities available in the global market with the available potential resources put to optimal...
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Patent Protection

Patent Protection
The Idea behind Patent Protection In product markets, the problem of imitation poses a great problem for innovators who are deprived of enjoying economic profits fully. If imitators are able to move in rapidly and capture a substantial share of the market, the initial profits earned by innovators may not be sufficient to cover their costs and risks in the long run. However, a substantial delay between the time of innovation and successive entry by competitors may provide the pioneers with decent profits and make invention and innovation a more attractive activity. The patent system, by establishing a period of time during which the firm faces reduced competition, increases the expected return for innovative effort.     Product and Process Innovations: A nation by stimulating research and development can increase the prospects of product and process innovations. Governments can encourage such innovations by granting patents. Three criteria must be satisfied to obtain a patent: The invention must be new It must not have been known to the public before the inventor completed it for more than one year prior to a patent application It must be useful and must be non-obvious     Picture Courtesy: Basics What are Patents? Patents confer the exclusive right to the use of an idea for a long period (which varies between nations,say,in countries like India, it is seven to fourteen years, depending on the nature of the product) within which the innovator might be able to recover his initial investment. Another reason to grant patents is to provide for widespread disclosure of new ideas and techniques. The main objective of patent protection is to encourage research and development. Patents: Encourage research and invention Induce an inventor to disclose his discoveries instead of keeping them as a secret. Offer a reward for the expenses of developing inventions to the state at which they are commercially practicable; and Provide an inducement to invest capital in new lines of production Granting of Patents: The idea behind granting of patents thus is to benefit the society. Developing countries have to offer patent protection, the lack of which has made many foreign firms shy away from investing in core sectors like pharmaceuticals and biotechnology in these nations. As a result, people of these countries are forced to buy life saving drugs like those for cancer and have to pay ruinous prices. Once patent protection is available, there is a possibility for manufacturing most of the drugs that are being imported, eventually leading to a fall in the price levels.     One of the difficult aspects of patent law is the principle that, whether a patent is to be issued to the person who conceives the idea or who first files for a patent. Another international issue involving patents is that, countries allow firms to steal and copy protected ideas, due to lack of severe legal enforcements or lack of interest. Either way it proves detrimental to the interest of the patent holders and such violations have to be strictly prohibited. Note: THE PATENTS ACT, 1970: An Act to amend and consolidate the law relating to patents The Patent Amendment Act,2005 The Patent Rules,2003 and Amendment Rules,2006 are some of the laws that protect patents in...
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Transfer of Technology

Transfer of Technology
Transfer of Technology- Commercialisation Vs.Benefit The total influx of technology in underdeveloped countries is from the advanced capitalist countries for obvious reasons, which will be the highlight of this discussion. Multinational corporations play a vital part in technology transfer, the motive being profit maximization for the parent company through their subsidiaries. These corporations act as the principal instrument of technology transfer, either through their subsidiaries or through contractual agreements made with developing countries. The idea is to bring mechanized processes and equipments that are not locally available. Dominance of Technology Supplier: The technology supplier usually takes the upper hand owing to his monopolistic strength that arises from the patent protection for differentiated products and processes. Very often, the terms and conditions of transfer are arbitrarily settled under highly imperfect market conditions by the technology supplying multinationals. Advanced nations have the advantages of reduced population density, even distribution of national wealth, high standard of living, more infusion of capital into research and development, availability of skilled personnel inclined towards research etc. Dependency of Developing Nations: Developing nations on the other hand are subject to the pressures of high population density, uneven distribution of economic wealth (poor people become more poor and the rich even richer), moderate or low living standards etc. Capital drain occurs due to heavy borrowings from the World Bank which leads to increase in the social overheads. In such a situation, it is next to impossible for a developing nation to pump capital into activities concerning research. Bargaining Power of Developing Nations: The bargaining power of developing nations is weak, as they have no access to information about alternate technologies and their sources nor the necessary infrastructure to evaluate the appropriateness of equipments, intermediates and processes. Moreover, the large part of the influx of technology in developing countries is in response to the policy of industrialization through import substitution. Transfer of technology from the developed to the underdeveloped countries is made in a number of ways. They are classified into two broad categories, viz., direct mechanism and indirect mechanism. The direct mechanism includes transfer of technology through banks, journals, industrial fairs, technical co-operation, movement of skilled people etc. Here there is a choice for the developing nation to select the appropriate technology that best suits their requirement. However, this is not the principal form of technology transfer that advanced nations would prefer. Price of Technology: The indirect mechanism implies technology transfer in a “package” or a “bundle” containing technology-embodying equipments, industrial properties like patents and trademark, skill, equity capital, etc. In this system, a local enterprise negotiates with multinational corporations for transport of the required elements of technology, and the terms and conditions are settled through a process of commercial transaction. Since the trading partners are unequal, the terms of contract are invariably restrictive and the price extended for the technology unreasonably high. All the underdeveloped countries, which have opted for growth along the classical path of capitalist development, are in a position to invite multinational corporations, if for no other reason than at least for the diffusion of...
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