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Organizational Development Techniques

Organizational Development Techniques

Organisational development is not an overnight transformation; it is indeed a gradual process that has to be implemented systematically and in tandem with the external environment.

Organizational Development

 A. :

The notion is to change the attitude and behaviour of individuals involved in the group rather than the or . The term sensitivity refers to the psychological aspect of human mind that has to be shaped to act in accordance with the expectations of the group.

 One’s own weakness is exposed and members understand how others react  towards them. Stress is on Group Dynamics and tackling problems.The idea is to improve the behaviour of people in order to maintain smooth inter-personal relationship without anybody’s  power or influence.

Members are encouraged to have an open, heart to heart talk to develop mature relationship.

The Process: Sensitivity  group is a small discussion group without any leader. The trainer raises a question and allows the members to proceed with the discussion, the focus being feelings and mutual respect. There is no set task or agenda and members try to analyse the immediate problem by having open discussion instead of applying logic and rationale. Free and frank discussions lead the members through periods of shock, anger, frustration, hostility, all for the better understanding of one another. Feedback includes videotape of the proceedings and guidance from the trainers. Members unlearn old things through shock and change the present behaviour to improve their behaviour pattern.

Individual emotions and inter-relationship pattern are primarily focused upon in sensitivity training. Sensitivity training borders on psychotherapy where the emotions as well as body language are taken into consideration. The expressions may be any one of the following:

1. Gestures


3.Physical contact


 Here the discrepancies among a group are weeded out using questionnaires, which identify the difference in perceptions amongst the same working family, group or department.  Th data collected is tabulated and distributed for taking part in the deliberations. This forms the basis for further discussions and the discrepancies  if any can be sorted out by open discussions with all concerned, defending  and opposing till a consensus is arrived at.

Here the focus is on ideas and not on persons who put up those ideas.


A firm may either seek the support of

 1. ## from within the organisation: Though he might be knowing the crux of the problem, his emotional involvement might block him from seeing the problem in the right perspective. Moreover the outcome of the result might be a ‘biased one’ due to internal politics.

 2. An outside expert: This person with his vast knowledge, experience and similar problem encounters may have the know-how of resolving the problem but may lack the necessary insight of that particular problem.

 The organisation must see to that process consultation is done through an external expert with the needed support provided by the authorities from within the organisation.


Team building is attempted at the group or inter-group level. The objective is to improve co-ordination thereby improving the performance as a group.


2. Development of inter-personal relations

3. Role analysis to identify roles and responsibilities

4. Team process analysis

are the key features of team building.


One of the major challenges for firms involved in development is tackling inter departmental conflicts. Such dysfunctional conflicts may exist between

a. Line and staff

b. Production  and materials

c. Finance and production

 As sensitivity training tries to change the attitude and perception of individuals on each other, inter group development attempts to change the perceptions of groups on themselves and on other groups.

 1. Each group meet independently and develop a list consisting of perception of itself, views about other departments and own belief of how others view on them.

 2. This list is inter changed with each of the other group to identify the “similarities” and “discrepancies” of perceptions of each other.

 3. Differences are articulated and disparities are examined in length.

 4. The real cause of conflicts are resolved through integration and irritants are removed.

 5. If need be sub groups are formed to remove the irritants – here irritants refer to the difference in  perceptions and impressions that groups have on each other.

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