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An Analysis of Accounting

An Analysis of Accounting
An Analysis to Understand the Art of Accounting Objectives of an Accountant: The pure objective of an accountant would be to record all business transactions that are monetary in nature, in order to ascertain if the company has earned profit or suffered loss during a financial year. The financial position of the company as on a particular date can thus be understood from the accounting journals and ledgers. We are talking about the conventional purpose of accounting. But with the lapse of time, more and more is being expected from accounting, in that, it has to meet the demands and requirements of tax authorities for the purpose of income tax and sales tax returns, government regulations, investors, owners and the management. Thus it can be aptly defined as the art of recording, classifying and summarizing events in a significant manner, that involve money transactions and/ or events that are of financial character, for interpretation. Systematic records for future reference: Book keeping is an accounting practice that tells us how to keep a record of financial transactions. A firm deals with its customers and suppliers, where numerous business transactions take place every day. It is not possible for us to remember every transaction, which we might need it for our reference at a future date. Especially, if it happens to be a credit sale, definitely the necessity of systematic book keeping arises. The owner would like to know, what amount is due from whom, from time to time. To know the financial position of the firm: Every merchant is in business to earn profits. So systematic recording of factual and financial information will facilitate the owner to understand where he stands financially at the end of a financial year, what is his net profit and to pull the ropes tight if credit margin is wide. Further more, he can also understand the nature of his business growth by comparing the accounting records of two consecutive years. Taxation purposes: Some people evade tax, but no one can avoid tax. The main source of revenue generation for government is tax payments from business merchants and corporate companies. You need to pay a percentage as tax, in accordance with profit arising from sales. The accounting records that you maintain contain facts that are taken into account by the taxation authorities as a basis for assessment. A Ready Referencer on Advanced Management Accounting: Padhuka CA Final Full syllabus coverage in student-oriented style. * Concept clarification through charts and graphs. * About 600+ illustrations with detailed workings. * Past main exams and RTPs questions included. * Fast track reference of formulae and concepts. * Chapter overview for easy navigation of topic… Good evidence in the court of law: To prove your genuinity, in case of some disputes between yourself and the customer or supplier, your records and vouchers, if authentic and valid, are going to speak for you in the court of law as solid evidence. Accounting also answers some of these questions: How well the different departments of business have performed all along? What is the most profitable product line? What are the products whose production has to be increase and what is to be stopped in order to avoid losses? Is the cost of production reasonable or excessive? Is there a need to revise policy decisions to improve the profitability? What will be the future plans of business in the wake of existing results presented to the management? Overall, is the firm proceeding towards the right direction in terms of productivity, profitability and growth? Accounting is not only about recording and classifying, the interesting features being analysis and interpretation, which are the key...
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Emotional Intelligence

Emotional Intelligence
Emotional Intelligence for Effective Inter Personal Relationships What is Emotional Intelligence : an ability or capacity to perceive, assess, and manage the emotions of one’s self, and of others. Role of Emotions: Emotions play a critical role in organizations where there is a need for people to work in groups or teams. A leader who is strong in mind and thoughtful can perceive, observe and direct the emotions of the team members through proper channels. Such a leader is said to be “emotionally intelligent”. No! It is not about intelligence quotient but emotional intelligence. Empathy is the ultimate quality expected in leaders and managers rather than being rated high in the IQ scale.The capacity to perceive, scrutinize and manage one’s own emotions and that of others is one major factor of advantage in the concept of emotional intelligence. An emotionally intelligent person can institutionalize and manage change as well as make powerful decisions. Grooming of Human Mind and Skills: Human resource management throws up a real challenge to corporate organizations, where human minds and skills have to be groomed for the purpose of transcending their performance to remarkable levels in order to satisfy the production requirements. This is possible only when an organization has a leader who can draft and amalgamate the process of relationship management and skill development without a glitch for the benefit of the organization . Transformational leadership with constructive attitude and open approach is well appreciated and accepted by the worker force. What are the distinct features of emotional intelligence? High perception Being insightful Sensitive to the needs and requirements of the employees Self-control Self-awareness Open communication Empathy Change management skills Effective decision making Ever sanguine Instrumental in developing interpersonal skills Breaks the conventional rules Aggressive and daring in his approach Socially popular and easily gain acceptance Motivation driver The rational quotient behind emotional intelligence helps people to think and act smart even during nerve-racking situations.Emotional intelligence helps people to think and act in a logical manner in stressful situations that can divert their energy into positive thinking. A leader with high emotional intelligence can work efficiently with his team members. The spirit of exuberance from the leader acts as a positive signal and takes the pressure off the employees’ mind. It is this ability to identify and understand the emotions of people working under him makes him a comrade rather than a commando. Why EI is Necessary? Emotional intelligence is necessary for top level executives at management level to stand out and succeed. An ordinary employee who does mundane job everyday is expected to be technically sound and well-trained. The same criterion can never be applied to a manager or a chief executive who is bound to manage both formal and informal teams working under the same roof. Only persons who are emotionally sound can uphold the proceedings with dynamism and verve. By motivating human personnel you can get things done in a smooth manner: Give them a fresh start to prove themselves in case if they fail at the first attempt Anger management of self/others Channelize the emotions of self/others and create positive vibes Perceive the problems from various angles to get a complete picture Understanding the root of the problem Treating work as fun Thinking out of the box – parallel thinking and creative thinking must be encouraged amongst the employee group. People with high emotional intelligence are the ones needed in business community as big corporate organizations always find it difficult to manage human resource. The management has to devise a system that takes into account the intricacies of human mind and assigning right people to handle the perplexities....
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Social Audit

Social Audit
Scaling Up the Process of Social Audit What is Social Audit : A formal review of a company’s endeavors in social responsibility Social Obligations of Business Organizations: Every business organization has certain social obligations to be duly discharged to employees, government, owners, buyers, public, environment etc. It is a good thing that businesspersons of today have understood their obligations and have been discharging them ably. Social audit scans the scope of the social responsibilities of a business enterprise and evaluates an organization’s social performance. Measure of Social Performance: There are no specific measures established to rate the social performance standards of a business enterprise. Nevertheless, business enterprises do not seem to understand the relevance of social audit because much importance is attached with the economic aspects of a business. The features of social audit are listed down for better understanding of the process: The focus is on the social aspect of a business organization rather than its economic aspect. The activities of a firm that has an impact on the society, such as, environmental quality, consumerism, opportunities for women and other disadvantaged people in the society are taken into consideration for analytical purpose. How to measure social performance of companies? Social audit is confined to the process rather than concentrating on the results of social action. It is quite difficult to measure social performance in quantitative terms. How do you quantify social philosophy of management and human values? Qualitative measurement is also relative, as, what appears right to one person may not be so for another. So a combination of quantitative and qualitative data must be used for the purpose of this audit. If an internal auditor does the assessment, there is this problem of loyalty, which will outweigh all the other shortcomings present in the business. If an external consultant is made to assess the situation, he can analyze the situation with no bias but he will not be familiar with the business activity of that particular firm. Therefore, a combination of both can work out well to carry out the assessment as they can complement each other. A New but Necessary Concept: Social audit is a new concept, so there are not much standard procedures available to follow. Most companies are at the beginning of the learning curve with this process. When companies do begin audit procedures, they tend to find that the process is more complex than originally contemplated. However, every aspect of business and its management has to be explored and analyzed for the benefit of future generations, so as to take proactive measures to tackle problem situations. Business firms obtain their resources from the society and are dependent on the society to sell their produce too. Hence, it becomes their moral responsibility of caring for the society, within their scope and...
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Man Power Planning

Man Power Planning
MAN POWER PLANNING What is the meaning of man power development? This involves an accurate determination of the present and future man power needs of the enterprise. Also the assessment of the right kind of organization structure both present and projected which determines the number and kinds of managers and workers required, is called for. Become a Product Manager | Learn the Skills & Get the Job ELEMENTS OF MAN POWER PLANNING:   1. Present Man Power Position Analysis: An assessment and evaluation of present man power position is the first step in the process which involves  data collection pertaining to name, age, educational qualification, training experience, specialized skills of the employees. This is done with the help of a man power inventory chart. 2. Man Power Inventory Chart: a) An overview of the present staffing situation of the company is known b) Prospective persons for promotion can be identified c) Future internal supply of human resource can be found out d) Lack of performance is pin pointed and either people can be replaced or trained suitably e) People on the verge of retirement are identified and plans are made to recruit suitable people to replace them f) People whose promotion is overdue but not implemented due  to internal politics can be identified and justice can be done by the management. 3. Job Evaluation and Job Analysis: Job evaluation is a process to rate a job in the order of hierarchy and laying down specifications needed to carry out that job. This would high light the following information a) The nature of work done by the work force b) The method employed by them to do it c) The skills, education and training required to do it d) How a particular job is related to other jobs e) What are the physical environmental conditions to accomplish the task effectively After careful analysis a neat job description can be prepared for each job which would cover the following details. 4. Job Description: a) Name or title of the job b) Nature of duties and operations to be performed c) Authority, responsibilities and accountability d) Necessary qualification i.e., education, skills, training, experience etc. 5. Assessment of Long term and Short term Goals: The goals whether short term or long term is decided by the market demand, and sales forecasts. Determining these goals gives the company a clear picture as to where it is headed for in the future and the kind of man power requirement to satisfy the enterprise objectives. 6. Demand of Supply of Personnel: The demand for Labor is very high as we all know and it is  inevitable for the organization to keep track in terms of man power inventory and requirement of present and future. You cannot hire any X, Y OR Z for a particular job. Inter departmental transfers can provide a temporary solution if a void is created for a specific position but it will not work out in the long run. “The ultimate objective of man power planning is to fill the demand and supply...
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