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Capital Structure Makeup

Capital Structure Makeup
What is your Capital Structure Make up A company in course of charting out its financial schema has to take into account two things. 1) The amount of capital to be raised. 2) Make-up of the capital. Decisions regarding the composition or capitalization are reflected in capital structure. Capital structure of a firm is a combination of debt and equity, which supports long term financing of the firm. The pattern of capital structure has to be planned very carefully by the finance manager in such a way that it minimizes the cost of capital and maximizes value of stocks, thus protecting the interest of the share holders. What is the right capital mix? There needs to be a right mix of different securities in total cpaitalisation that facilitates control, flexibility and maneuverability. From a broad perspective, following are the three fundamental ways in which the schema of capital structure is finalized: Financing purely or exclusively by equity Financing by equity and preferred stock Financing by equity, preferred stocks and bonds. Which of the above most suits a firm depends on multifarious internal and external factors within which a firm operates. Equity: A firm can raise substantially large amount of fund by issuing different types of shares. The money thus raised is a permanent source of resource and without any obligation to refund to the respective owners. Small and growing companies go for equity fund raising as no banks or other financial institutions are prepared to fund these firms in lieu of poor credit worthiness. Even big corporate firms opt for issuing equities when there is a need to raise large sums. But smaller firms, whose major share of capital comprises of common stock, have to be careful, in that, some large concerns might become interested in controlling these stocks. The one big advantage of equity shareholders is that they are free to trade the shares in the market. They can sell the shares to anybody at any time and if the market warrants, at a higher price. One has really nothing to lose, if he is planning to invest in equities. On the other hand, if the company goes bankrupt, the share holders stand a chance to receive only the residual amount, after the creditors’ claims are cleared and satisfied. Debt: Debt has a maturity date upon which the stipulated sum of principal is repaid. It places the burden of obligation on the shoulders of the company in the form of periodical interest settlements and principal repayments. Creditors can go for legal action if the company defaults in payment of the assured sum on the specific date. That’s why companies think twice before they go for issuing debentures and other bonds. One good thing for the company is that, it can avail tax rebate on the securities of debt, but at the other end it has to satisfy the interest payments and factorise the cost of capital. Cost and Control Principles Cost principle supports induction of additional doses of debt, but it might prove risky, if the company is not able to service the additional debt. Control principle supports the issue of bonds in order to tighten the rein of ownership, but maneuverability principle discounts this and favors issue of common stock to reduce the interest burden. Four factors are important in the purview of the finance manager, cost, risk, control and timing. He should be able to evolve a pattern that satisfactorily brings a compromise among these conflicting factors, which are then assigned weights in the wake of economic and industrial...
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Economic Growth Strategies for Developing Countries

Economic Growth Strategies for Developing Countries
Economic Growth Strategies A Purview on Economic Growth Strategies for Developing Countries A developing country is one where the per capita income is low relative to that of fully developed countries. In human terms developing countries typically have major population percentage with poor health, low levels of literacy, inadequate dwellings and meager diets. The key to development rests on four fundamental factors namely human resources, natural resources, capital formation and technology. Human resources: A lot of poor countries are forever running hard just to stay in place. Even as a developing nation’s GDP rises, so does its population. So it becomes a mammoth task for such nations to overcome poverty with birth rates so high. Equitable distribution of wealth cannot happen in an economy unless and until it becomes self sufficient. One strategy will be to curb the population, even if such actions run against prevailing religious norms. Strategies for Developement Economic planners in developing countries lay great emphasis on the following strategies of development with regard to human capital: Control disease and improve health and nutrition Improve education, reduce illiteracy and train workers Above all, do not underestimate the importance of human resources. Literate people are knowledgeable and resourceful; their analytical skills help them to weigh the pros and cons of specific social situations that affect their standards of living. Asian countries like India and China with exploding population figures are in a situation to invest their human capital for productive purposes. Pinning Your Way to Profit With Pinterest Natural Resources: Some developing nations with meager endowments of natural resources such as land and minerals have to divide the available resources among the dense population. Perhaps the most valuable of all the resources would be arable land, as most of the people in developing countries employ themselves in farming, which is the primary economic activity. Hence the productive use of land with appropriate conservation, fertilizers and tillage will go- far in increasing a poor nation’s output. More over land ownership patterns are a key to providing farmers with strong incentives to invest in capital land’s yield. When farmers own land, they are more willing to make improvements, such as irrigation systems and undertake appropriate conservation practices. The governments have to think in these lines if their economy is based on agricultural activity: Farmers should be appraised about modern farming techniques and provided with farming equipments and fertilizers at subsidized rates. Note:-nothing should be given as free as freebies make them lethargic and unmotivated. Much of cultivable lands are being destroyed for commercial purposes which have to be checked. Power generation and supply should be copious and uninterrupted as farming, solely is dependent on availability and usage of ground water. Pumping of water is done through jet pumps and electric motors. Budding population can make a marked difference in the field of farming, as it is impossible for a nation to generate white collar jobs for everyone and it definitely elevates the capacity of youth from being mere employees to that of owners. Organic farming has found a place for itself in international market and human capital of developing nations can be employed in research and development of new strains that will facilitate to capture the global market. Capital formation: Rates of productive capital formation are low in developing countries because of deprived income; little can be saved for the future. The financing of growth in poor countries has always been an unstable link in the productive mechanism. Countries should definitely have a balanced and cautious approach when they plan to finance ambitious development programmes as they will be forced to borrow heavily from other developed countries or the World Bank. Technological change and innovations: This is...
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