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An Analysis of Accounting

An Analysis of Accounting
An Analysis to Understand the Art of Accounting Objectives of an Accountant: The pure objective of an accountant would be to record all business transactions that are monetary in nature, in order to ascertain if the company has earned profit or suffered loss during a financial year. The financial position of the company as on a particular date can thus be understood from the accounting journals and ledgers. We are talking about the conventional purpose of accounting. But with the lapse of time, more and more is being expected from accounting, in that, it has to meet the demands and requirements of tax authorities for the purpose of income tax and sales tax returns, government regulations, investors, owners and the management. Thus it can be aptly defined as the art of recording, classifying and summarizing events in a significant manner, that involve money transactions and/ or events that are of financial character, for interpretation. Systematic records for future reference: Book keeping is an accounting practice that tells us how to keep a record of financial transactions. A firm deals with its customers and suppliers, where numerous business transactions take place every day. It is not possible for us to remember every transaction, which we might need it for our reference at a future date. Especially, if it happens to be a credit sale, definitely the necessity of systematic book keeping arises. The owner would like to know, what amount is due from whom, from time to time. To know the financial position of the firm: Every merchant is in business to earn profits. So systematic recording of factual and financial information will facilitate the owner to understand where he stands financially at the end of a financial year, what is his net profit and to pull the ropes tight if credit margin is wide. Further more, he can also understand the nature of his business growth by comparing the accounting records of two consecutive years. Taxation purposes: Some people evade tax, but no one can avoid tax. The main source of revenue generation for government is tax payments from business merchants and corporate companies. You need to pay a percentage as tax, in accordance with profit arising from sales. The accounting records that you maintain contain facts that are taken into account by the taxation authorities as a basis for assessment. A Ready Referencer on Advanced Management Accounting: Padhuka CA Final Full syllabus coverage in student-oriented style. * Concept clarification through charts and graphs. * About 600+ illustrations with detailed workings. * Past main exams and RTPs questions included. * Fast track reference of formulae and concepts. * Chapter overview for easy navigation of topic… Good evidence in the court of law: To prove your genuinity, in case of some disputes between yourself and the customer or supplier, your records and vouchers, if authentic and valid, are going to speak for you in the court of law as solid evidence. Accounting also answers some of these questions: How well the different departments of business have performed all along? What is the most profitable product line? What are the products whose production has to be increase and what is to be stopped in order to avoid losses? Is the cost of production reasonable or excessive? Is there a need to revise policy decisions to improve the profitability? What will be the future plans of business in the wake of existing results presented to the management? Overall, is the firm proceeding towards the right direction in terms of productivity, profitability and growth? Accounting is not only about recording and classifying, the interesting features being analysis and interpretation, which are the key...
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Transfer of Technology

Transfer of Technology
Transfer of Technology- Commercialisation Vs.Benefit The total influx of technology in underdeveloped countries is from the advanced capitalist countries for obvious reasons, which will be the highlight of this discussion. Multinational corporations play a vital part in technology transfer, the motive being profit maximization for the parent company through their subsidiaries. These corporations act as the principal instrument of technology transfer, either through their subsidiaries or through contractual agreements made with developing countries. The idea is to bring mechanized processes and equipments that are not locally available. Dominance of Technology Supplier: The technology supplier usually takes the upper hand owing to his monopolistic strength that arises from the patent protection for differentiated products and processes. Very often, the terms and conditions of transfer are arbitrarily settled under highly imperfect market conditions by the technology supplying multinationals. Advanced nations have the advantages of reduced population density, even distribution of national wealth, high standard of living, more infusion of capital into research and development, availability of skilled personnel inclined towards research etc. Dependency of Developing Nations: Developing nations on the other hand are subject to the pressures of high population density, uneven distribution of economic wealth (poor people become more poor and the rich even richer), moderate or low living standards etc. Capital drain occurs due to heavy borrowings from the World Bank which leads to increase in the social overheads. In such a situation, it is next to impossible for a developing nation to pump capital into activities concerning research. Bargaining Power of Developing Nations: The bargaining power of developing nations is weak, as they have no access to information about alternate technologies and their sources nor the necessary infrastructure to evaluate the appropriateness of equipments, intermediates and processes. Moreover, the large part of the influx of technology in developing countries is in response to the policy of industrialization through import substitution. Transfer of technology from the developed to the underdeveloped countries is made in a number of ways. They are classified into two broad categories, viz., direct mechanism and indirect mechanism. The direct mechanism includes transfer of technology through banks, journals, industrial fairs, technical co-operation, movement of skilled people etc. Here there is a choice for the developing nation to select the appropriate technology that best suits their requirement. However, this is not the principal form of technology transfer that advanced nations would prefer. Price of Technology: The indirect mechanism implies technology transfer in a “package” or a “bundle” containing technology-embodying equipments, industrial properties like patents and trademark, skill, equity capital, etc. In this system, a local enterprise negotiates with multinational corporations for transport of the required elements of technology, and the terms and conditions are settled through a process of commercial transaction. Since the trading partners are unequal, the terms of contract are invariably restrictive and the price extended for the technology unreasonably high. All the underdeveloped countries, which have opted for growth along the classical path of capitalist development, are in a position to invite multinational corporations, if for no other reason than at least for the diffusion of...
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Growth Strategies in Business

Growth Strategies in Business
Growth Strategies In Business What are Growth Strategies? The means by which an organization plans to achieve its objective to grow in volume and turnover. The dynamic business environment calls for periodical changes in the business definitions, in terms of customer groups, customer functions and alternative technologies to broaden their scope for expansion. Growth can never be achieved by a business enterprise, if there is no proper planning for diversification of its business activities across a broad spectrum. Expansion strategies are followed when an organization aims at high growth, by improving its overall performance.     A Small Note on Data Science and Analytics Data analytics help companies improve operational efficiency, drive new revenue and gain competitive advantages. To leverage this technology, companies need to understand the core of their data and determine the outputs that they are looking for. In fact, data-driven companies that utilize Business Analytics achieve a competitive advantage. The companies can improve their strategies by keeping in mind the customer focus. Big data analytics efficiently helps operations to become more effective. Expansion Strategy: Expansion strategies have a profound impact on the internal configuration as well as internal functioning of an organization. The business firms bear the risk of moving in an entirely new direction, where there is an equal chance for failure as that of success. If only a manufacturer plans to diversify or expand in a field that complements his present business activity, does it make any sense. What is the fun in venturing into a business activity about which you have no knowledge or scope? Expansion through concentration: This involves investment of resources in a product line for an identified market with the help of proven technology. A firm may attempt to intensify its focus on existing markets through market penetration strategies. Or new users may be targeted for existing products or alternatively it may introduce new products in existing markets by concentrating on product development. Concentration policy relies on the principle of “A known devil is far better than an unknown angel.” It is a very difficult task for firms to capture new markets or to gain acceptance for new products in existing markets. Expansion through integration: A company attempts to widen the scope of its business activities in such a manner that it results in serving the same set of customers. The alternative technology dimension of the business definition undergoes a radical change. Firms try to move up or down in the value chain to meet the demands of the customers by integrating adjacent activities. Expansion through co-operation: It may include mergers, takeovers, joint ventures and strategic alliances. Two firms try to combine their resources, capabilities and core competencies to pursue mutual interests to develop, manufacture or distribute goods and services. Expansion through internationalization: International strategies are formulated in the wake of globalization where most of the developing countries have liberalized their economic policies facilitating foreign direct investments, generating foreign exchange. Many multinational and transnational companies are setting up their operations in developing countries to factorise the economies of scale and to enjoy the advantages of cheap labor and availability of resources. Stability Strategy: Many firms go for stability strategies that are devoid of any risks. They are quite contented with the modest profit gained from the present business activity and try to maintain the same level of performance, until and unless there is a pressure from the market in the form of competition. Only few firms have that adventurous attitude to take risks in order to have a sustainable competitive...
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Finance

Capital Structure – Debt vs Equity Financial Markets – Instruments and Securities
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Scope of Business Activity

Scope of Business Activity
The Scope of Business Activity How can we define Business? Business is an important institution in the society. Be it for the supply of goods and services; creation of employment opportunities; offering better quality of life; contribution to the economic growth of a country; the role of business is crucial. Society cannot do without business. It needs no emphasis that business needs society as much. Flat $15 off on flights with our Summer Deals. Hurry Up! The subject of business is as interesting as its role in society. The more one reads about it, more interesting does business become. Entrepreneurial activities The increasing number of business schools and institutions signify the importance and the need for training the students on rudiments of business management. The basic aim of a business activity is to make profits in a narrower sense. In a broader sense, it aims at the growth of a nation’s economy.  Developing countries encourage entrepreneurial activities and view it as a strategy to improve the GDP (Gross Domestic Product). More business activity means increased per capita income and increased standard of living. A business must make profit to succeed. Profit is income minus outgo. It is the main incentive for starting a business. Business people weigh each of their decisions in terms of making profit and avoiding loss. Allure Gold, Spoil Yourself… In a corporate environment, business has to aim for wealth maximization apart from profit maximization to increase the shareholder’s wealth in the long run. The scope of business is indeed vast. It all depends on how well you have analyzed and understood the nuances of your business activity, in order to survive and sustain in the market. Supply Chain The supply chain in a business activity involves numerous links in the form of manufacturers, supplier of raw materials to the manufacturer, dealers, logistics, intermediaries, consumers, bankers, advertising agencies, insurance agencies and so on. All these elements have to function in a coordinated manner for the benefit of the consumer. Now days, business has become customer-centric rather than product-centric. This serves both the purpose of product development in lieu of customer needs and customer satisfaction. 100 Bestselling Courses-The Complete iOS 9 Developer Course – Build 18 Apps The multitudinous activities involved in bringing raw materials to the factory and the end product from there to the market constitute business. In addition, a business activity has to comply with legal restrictions and government regulations. A business is also expected to discharge its social obligations to consumers, employees, owners and to other interest groups, which have stakes in business directly or indirectly. Planning and organization Planning and organization are two key principles in running a business enterprise as planning sets up a concrete premise on which action plans can be developed and organized activities assures definite success. Modern business is dynamic. Future business will be knowledge based and brainpower will be in greater demand. Organizations have become flat. Eight to twelve organizational layers have been reduced to two or three. Gone are the days of sheltered markets, subsidies, licenses, quotas and restrictions. Businesspersons are asked to stand on their feet, to eliminate inefficiencies, cut down costs and improve productivity. LoL! It might be said that it is the ideal of the employer to have production without employees and the ideal of the employee is to have income without work. –E. F....
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