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Decision Making

Decision Making
Evaluating the Importance of Decision Making Successful decision making is one that is devoid of any ambiguity or tentativeness. Although there is a wide range of choice and alternative techniques to arrive at a decision, timely decision making is what adds value to the decision. The objective is to execute the action plan immediately to avoid delays that might prove costly in terms of productivity. Defensive behavior of managers: Managers who are the key figures to make decisions sometimes play defense to avoid action, blame or change. They exhibit a variety of defensive behaviors which is a wasted effort; this also makes the workers lethargic in their attitude. Avoiding action is considered to be the best political strategy. Some managers always talk about the rules and regulations that have been followed for ages in that company and want every action to be rigidly adhered to the precedence and neither allows nor admits the need to consider the nuances of a particular case. Policies and Procedures: Policies and procedures are of course the prerogative of the top level management, but it is the duty of the manager to suggest reforms in those policies that are obsolete by bringing it to the perusal of the ultimate authorities. How long will you sing the same song “The rules clearly state that”! Also don’t try to pass the buck or play duals, that clearly showcases your inability to handle things and nobody nowadays is prepared to believe false pretense. Expectation of Sub-Ordinates from the Superiors: Subordinates look up to their superiors for support as well as quick solutions for problems of any kind that comes their way; only a person who is quick in reacting to situations with presence of mind and consideration is well liked by and approved of. If you distance yourself from problems or try to prolong a task in lieu of your inability to make a decision, in the short run it might prove helpful in covering up making you look busy and productive. But what happens in the long run? It leads to organizational rigidity and stagnation in terms of productivity and a sag in the morale of the employees. Fifty Models for Strategic Thinking  Playing it Safe is not Always Safe: Playing safe is not always safe. Some managers always like to lead a team that has taken up viable projects with a high probability of success. There is no pain but lots of gain. This tactics makes you devoid of risk taking -which according to me is the prime and supreme quality that a manager or a team leader must possess or at least try to develop. Also taking a neutral position in #conflict situations makes you a dull leader and not a person to be much sought after. What is the result of Poor Decision Making? The first and foremost thing that managers have to understand and admit is that, poor decision making is the root cause of failed course of action. They should have the guts to admit and take up the responsibility for the negative outcome and not to seek some strategically helpless defense mechanisms. Making others a scapegoat for your helplessness doesn’t shield you for long but puts you in the defending territory forever. Ddefensiveness delays decisions, affects organizational success, sets a bad precedence, increased group conflicts, interpersonal tensions and leads to unreliable evaluations. The long and short of the discussion clearly highlights the importance of recruiting not only a qualified manager but a committed and reliable person who has the ability to take risks and tackle crisis situations with ease and steer the organization smoothly without any hitches by greasing it...
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Redesigning Your Workplace

Redesigning Your Workplace
REDESIGNING YOUR WORKPLACE IN RESPONSE TO EXOGENOUS FACTORS Big corporate firms generally face #challenges in the form of Lack of co-operation between subunits Increasing complaints from the customers Rising #Operating costs Dip in the morale Major changes in #technology All these signs are indications of a not so enterprising #organizational climate and it calls for quick #decision making regarding introducing some changes that bring some positive development in terms of improved #efficiency and increase in #productivity. Effective people are preferred to rather than efficient people as the former does the right thing and the latter does things right. Growth of  Organizations: The challenges mentioned above may make an organization’s existing #structure, #management practice or its culture obsolete for the new situation. Growth of an organization should be a result of collaborative effort of all the units of an organization and it is objective and not subjective. An organization is comprised of different elements which interact in deciding the organizational effectiveness. The #task or goal, technology, structure, people and the internal and #external environment of the firm; all these coexist and hold the firm together. Be it a school, a hospital, a union, a club or a #business enterprise the interactive nature of these elements make the process of managing very difficult. Medical tourism and business travel are becoming more popular in Asian countries as it increases the scope of collaboration of industries that can coexist to enjoy a win-win situation. Who is an #Effective Manager? An effective manager anticipates these challenges and proactively initializes a planned change. He strategically prepares the organization to be subject to planned change by manipulating the structure, technology and #behavior. Understanding the dimensions of change helps him to manage change better as people are always resistant to change. Modern enterprises right from the start have to install and implement “systems” that are technologically most modern and hire suitable people who are techno-savvy; because technology rules the world and the development of new software programmes and hardware components feed on themselves every day. Developing an Organization as a Whole: Behavior of people is unpredictable but controllable. Individually oriented #training and development programmes does not prove much to the benefit of the organization as it creates apprehensions in the minds of the individual that are related to the culture and #attitude of his superior and subordinates. The idea of developing the organization as a whole through team building is a better perspective as it renews the enthusiasm of people working for you and as a team they feel more cohesive and adhered. Synergy plays its role in improving the interpersonal relationship amongst the team members. Firms are becoming more modern in their outlook. For instance, a showroom whose purpose is to showcase your products also provides entertainment by its aesthetic value. Only if the customer is impressed by the artistic way of your exhibit, will he enter your showroom. Change is inevitable and it improves the health of an organization. The focus should be on “total system change” and the orientation is towards achieving desired results as a consequence of planned activities. Flat Organizational Structure: You would have come across the latest buzz word “flat organizational structure”. This is designed in order to bridge the gap between front line #employees and the executive level. If there is only few levels of management, the process of #communication is more effective, the art of delegation becomes mandatory and need for participation in the decision making process involves all the employees which in turn reduces bureaucracy. There is no set pattern or set of techniques that suits all the organizations when they go for a change. But the #change...
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An Analysis of Accounting

An Analysis of Accounting
An Analysis to Understand the Art of Accounting Objectives of an Accountant: The pure objective of an accountant would be to record all business transactions that are monetary in nature, in order to ascertain if the company has earned profit or suffered loss during a financial year. The financial position of the company as on a particular date can thus be understood from the accounting journals and ledgers. We are talking about the conventional purpose of accounting. But with the lapse of time, more and more is being expected from accounting, in that, it has to meet the demands and requirements of tax authorities for the purpose of income tax and sales tax returns, government regulations, investors, owners and the management. Thus it can be aptly defined as the art of recording, classifying and summarizing events in a significant manner, that involve money transactions and/ or events that are of financial character, for interpretation. Systematic records for future reference: Book keeping is an accounting practice that tells us how to keep a record of financial transactions. A firm deals with its customers and suppliers, where numerous business transactions take place every day. It is not possible for us to remember every transaction, which we might need it for our reference at a future date. Especially, if it happens to be a credit sale, definitely the necessity of systematic book keeping arises. The owner would like to know, what amount is due from whom, from time to time. To know the financial position of the firm: Every merchant is in business to earn profits. So systematic recording of factual and financial information will facilitate the owner to understand where he stands financially at the end of a financial year, what is his net profit and to pull the ropes tight if credit margin is wide. Further more, he can also understand the nature of his business growth by comparing the accounting records of two consecutive years. Taxation purposes: Some people evade tax, but no one can avoid tax. The main source of revenue generation for government is tax payments from business merchants and corporate companies. You need to pay a percentage as tax, in accordance with profit arising from sales. The accounting records that you maintain contain facts that are taken into account by the taxation authorities as a basis for assessment. A Ready Referencer on Advanced Management Accounting: Padhuka CA Final Full syllabus coverage in student-oriented style. * Concept clarification through charts and graphs. * About 600+ illustrations with detailed workings. * Past main exams and RTPs questions included. * Fast track reference of formulae and concepts. * Chapter overview for easy navigation of topic… Good evidence in the court of law: To prove your genuinity, in case of some disputes between yourself and the customer or supplier, your records and vouchers, if authentic and valid, are going to speak for you in the court of law as solid evidence. Accounting also answers some of these questions: How well the different departments of business have performed all along? What is the most profitable product line? What are the products whose production has to be increase and what is to be stopped in order to avoid losses? Is the cost of production reasonable or excessive? Is there a need to revise policy decisions to improve the profitability? What will be the future plans of business in the wake of existing results presented to the management? Overall, is the firm proceeding towards the right direction in terms of productivity, profitability and growth? Accounting is not only about recording and classifying, the interesting features being analysis and interpretation, which are the key...
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Transfer of Technology

Transfer of Technology
Transfer of Technology- Commercialisation Vs.Benefit The total influx of technology in underdeveloped countries is from the advanced capitalist countries for obvious reasons, which will be the highlight of this discussion. Multinational corporations play a vital part in technology transfer, the motive being profit maximization for the parent company through their subsidiaries. These corporations act as the principal instrument of technology transfer, either through their subsidiaries or through contractual agreements made with developing countries. The idea is to bring mechanized processes and equipments that are not locally available. Dominance of Technology Supplier: The technology supplier usually takes the upper hand owing to his monopolistic strength that arises from the patent protection for differentiated products and processes. Very often, the terms and conditions of transfer are arbitrarily settled under highly imperfect market conditions by the technology supplying multinationals. Advanced nations have the advantages of reduced population density, even distribution of national wealth, high standard of living, more infusion of capital into research and development, availability of skilled personnel inclined towards research etc. Dependency of Developing Nations: Developing nations on the other hand are subject to the pressures of high population density, uneven distribution of economic wealth (poor people become more poor and the rich even richer), moderate or low living standards etc. Capital drain occurs due to heavy borrowings from the World Bank which leads to increase in the social overheads. In such a situation, it is next to impossible for a developing nation to pump capital into activities concerning research. Bargaining Power of Developing Nations: The bargaining power of developing nations is weak, as they have no access to information about alternate technologies and their sources nor the necessary infrastructure to evaluate the appropriateness of equipments, intermediates and processes. Moreover, the large part of the influx of technology in developing countries is in response to the policy of industrialization through import substitution. Transfer of technology from the developed to the underdeveloped countries is made in a number of ways. They are classified into two broad categories, viz., direct mechanism and indirect mechanism. The direct mechanism includes transfer of technology through banks, journals, industrial fairs, technical co-operation, movement of skilled people etc. Here there is a choice for the developing nation to select the appropriate technology that best suits their requirement. However, this is not the principal form of technology transfer that advanced nations would prefer. Price of Technology: The indirect mechanism implies technology transfer in a “package” or a “bundle” containing technology-embodying equipments, industrial properties like patents and trademark, skill, equity capital, etc. In this system, a local enterprise negotiates with multinational corporations for transport of the required elements of technology, and the terms and conditions are settled through a process of commercial transaction. Since the trading partners are unequal, the terms of contract are invariably restrictive and the price extended for the technology unreasonably high. All the underdeveloped countries, which have opted for growth along the classical path of capitalist development, are in a position to invite multinational corporations, if for no other reason than at least for the diffusion of...
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SWOT Analysis

SWOT Analysis
What is Swot Analysis and how to do a Swot Analysis Perfectly? Strategy formulation is an integral part of management decision making as strategies come to our risk whilst there are fluctuations in the external environment. A management expert will tell you rightly that strategies are not templates constructed for a specific purpose as they are formulated based on broad policies of a particular organization and have to be in tandem with the enterprise objectives. Nevertheless a CEO will find himself in situations where he might be forced to make instantaneous strategic decisions irrespective of the nature of the problem, only considering the magnitude of the situation. SWOT AND SYNERGY EQUATIONS Significance of SWOT Analysis: The analysis subjectively evaluates the impact of internal and external factors for a business objective. Internal processes and resources are considered strengths and weaknesses (S and W, respectively). External factors affecting the business and industry are considered opportunities and threats (O and T, respectively). An evaluation of these factors develops a strategic perspective that includes the competitive landscape and current market conditions. Need for Alternate Strategic Decisions: Lately we are witnessing a number of multinational giants going in for Joint Ventures and Collaboration. What is the root cause for such alternate strategic decisions? What happened to the value of the “Brand Image” of the organization or the “Profit Margins” which kept the company going? Well, this is where we have to look into the structure of their operations and most importantly the modality formulated to reach their ultimate objectives. Definitely, there would have been a big dent somewhere in the top management notch, failing to see through the obvious. Market Research is Inevitable for Decision Making: Situations change and we even experience this in our day to day lives, where decision making becomes very difficult at times; further we push the situation to extreme limits and make it worse. Planning is the very basis of our life that facilitates smooth functioning and change for the better. In big corporates, decision making is by and large the responsibility of the top management and they pass on the instructions down the line. It is but natural that the chairman and board of directors should make all the important decisions as they are the potential capital investors. Market research is another area that deserves mention at this juncture without which business persons cannot think of kicking off trade as it will be a sheer waste of money and time. Understanding the pulse of the market and your target customers always help in shaping up the right strategies concerning New product launch Consumer Preference Price determination Product modification etc., Test marketing is one of the strategies followed by many multi national companies while they launch their new products or wish to introduce variations in their product range. THE IMPORTANCE OF DECISION-MAKING Strategies are based on organizational policies and policies have to confer to the objectives and goals of the organization. The top management team should be a set of professional experts who should be able to gauge the existing as well as future trends of the market based on political, legal, environmental and economic changes and sketch their action plans accordingly. Decentralising decision making and delegating the authority as and when needed are also fine strategies to gain co-operation from your employees and to bring co-ordination in the entire business...
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