About Us|Contact Us|Register|Login

[google-translator]

Technology and Society

Technology and Society
Technology and Society Perhaps the most striking influence of technology is found on society. Practically every area of social life and the life of every individual has been, in some sense or the other, changed by the development in technology. Technology reaches people through business: Preferences of people are constantly changing and this has pushed the business firms to the point, where innovation has become the need of the hour. The new discoveries would remain idle as mere ideas if there were no laboratories to transform the ideas into creations. Technology reaching people through business is one part of the theory. The economic prosperity of a nation depends on technology. The Non-Technical Person’s guide to building products & apps High expectations of consumers: People are used to technological innovations and breakthroughs and they want variety in every kind of purchase they make. New varieties of products, more safe and comfortable, free from pollution, are to be produced and supplied to affluent sections. This calls for a massive investment in research and development. In countries like Japan, much importance is attached to product design, quality, sophistication, delivery schedules and prices. High expectations need not be considered as problems by business persons but treated as an opportunity to satisfy their customer group. System complexity: Technology has resulted in complexity. Modern machines work faster and better, no doubt. However, if there is a technical problem, the presence of an expert is needed to repair the machinery. Again, investment in machinery adds to the cost of capital and hence the merchandise has to be purchased form reliable sources. Social change: The change in the technological process undoubtedly has its effect on the society. First, there is a change in the social life, with mobile populations drifting about in search of new centers of employment. If it happens to be an agricultural economy, the result of such a drift would prove disastrous, with society being socially uprooted. Sometimes such a drift may result in new geographical distribution of population. Technological change also brings considerable changes in the family, life style and attitude. The way we cook, communicate, use media and work are all affected by technology. Technological phases and the social systems they create: There are five stages of technological development. Each stage leaves a distinct influence on work and on social system. Sequential progress is made from the lowest level to the highest level, in such a way that these five stages roughly represent the progress of civilization throughout history. Although one phase of technology tends to dominate a nation’s activities at a particular time, other phases will be often practiced at the same time. Technology means change and more change. It forces changes on people whether they are prepared for it or not. In modern history, it has created what is called future shock, which means that change comes so fast and furious that it approaches the limits of human tolerance and people lose their ability to cope with it...
read more

Price Discrimination

Price Discrimination
Price Discrimination: A pricing strategy that charges customers different prices for the same product or service. Price discrimination is adopted by most of the firms in order to group their customers into different segments and fix different prices for each segment for identical products and services. This helps them to increase their revenue as well to cater to the needs of different customer groups. The negative aspect of this exercise is increased administrative costs in segmenting the markets and some people end up paying higher costs. But it has to be remembered that by discriminating prices, firms are able to cut through and exploit all layers of the market, helping them to expand. Elasticity of Demand Price discrimination can be practiced by a firm only which has some control over the price. Obviously a price taker cannot indulge himself in price discrimination. It must be possible to group different markets in terms of price elasticity of demand. Suppose a firm identifies two potential markets, fixes high price for one market and low for another, caution is the key word in that, both the markets should be separable. Otherwise there is the danger of purchasing a product in one market for a lower price and the same being resold in another at a higher price. It might damage the market reputation of the firm as well. Skimming the Profit The process of price discrimination is followed by most of the firms existing in monopolistic and oligopolistic markets, where there is a necessity to exploit potential customers at the earliest in order to skim the profit. Premium customers are targeted first, followed by middle income group and then lower income group. Recent marketing strategies allow middle and lower income group to enjoy all the material comforts and luxuries available for the premium class, by arranging for loans to be settled in equated monthly installments over a period of time. The firms are also engaged in associating themselves with financial institutions and banks, which proves to be a win-win situation for both. Following are some examples cited for your understanding about price discrimination: In legal and medical professions, charging of lower fees to the low income than to high income group. Charging of lower prices abroad than at home for a variety of products and services ranging from books and medicines to movies. Charging of lower prices for elders and children in public transportation and airlines. Charging of lower hotel rates for conventions and meetings. Electronic industry, where the price set initially is high and then it falls down gradually. Firms believe that by offering different prices to different customer groups, can retain the customers and prevent them from switching over to another supplier. Travel agencies offer fanciful package tours with attractive and competent prices that are irresistible. Such is the power of marketing when presented in the right mix targeting the right customers at the right...
read more