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ROI Ratios

ROI Ratios
ROI – Return on Investment Ratios PROFITABILITY IN RELATION TO INVESTMENTS Return on gross investment or gross capital employed Return on net investment or net capital employed Return on shareholder’s investment or shareholder’s capital employed. Return on equity shareholder investment or equity shareholder capital employed. 1.  RETURN ON GROSS CAPITAL EMPLOYED This ratio establishes the relationship between net profit and the gross capital employed.  The term gross capital employed refers to the total investment made in business.  The conventional approach is to divide Earnings After Tax (EAT) by gross capital employed.  Return on gross capital employed = Earnings After Tax (EAT) X 100 / Gross capital employed 2.  RETURN ON NET CAPITAL EMPLOYED It is calculated by dividing Earnings Before Interest & Tax (EBIT) by the net capital employed.  The term net capital employed in the gross capital in the business minus current liabilities.  Thus it represents the long-term funds supplied by creditors and owners of the firm.  Return on net capital employed = Earnings Before Interest & Tax (EBIT) X 100 / Net capital employed  3.  RETURN ON SHARE CAPITAL EMPLOYED This ratio establishes the relationship between earnings after taxes and the shareholder investment in the business.  This ratio reveals how profitability the owners’ funds have been utilized by the firm.  It is calculated by dividing Earnings after tax (EAT) by shareholder capital employed. Return on share capital employed = Earnings after tax (EAT) X 100 / Shareholder capital employed 4.  RETURN ON EQUITY SHARE CAPITAL EMPLOYED Equity shareholders are entitled to all the profits remaining after the all outside claims including dividends on preference share capital are paid in full. The earnings may be distributed to them or retained in the business.  Return on equity share capital investments or capital employed establishes the relationship between earnings after tax and preference dividend and equity shareholder investment or capital employed or net worth.  It is calculated by dividing earnings after tax and preference dividend by equity shareholder’s capital employed. Return on equity share capital employed = Earnings after tax (EAT), preference dividends X 100 / Equity share capital employed. The following are some of the important and basic concepts to be understood in management accounting: EARNINGS PER SHARE IT measures the profit available to the equity shareholders on a per share basis.  It is computed by dividing earnings available to the equity shareholders by the total number of equity share outstanding. Earnings per share = Earnings after tax – Preferred dividends (if any) / Equity shares outstanding DIVIDEND PER SHARE The dividends paid to the shareholders on a per share basis in dividend per share.  Thus dividend per share is the earnings distributed to the ordinary shareholders divided by the number of ordinary shares outstanding. Dividend per share = Earnings paid to the ordinary shareholders / Number of ordinary shares outstanding DIVIDENDS PAY OUT RATIO (PAY OUT RATIO) It measures the relationship between the earnings belonging to the equity shareholders and the dividends paid to them.  It shows what percentage shares of the earnings are available for the ordinary shareholders are paid out as dividend to the ordinary shareholders.  It can be calculated by dividing the total dividend paid to the equity shareholders by the total earnings available to them or alternatively by dividing dividend per share by earnings per share. Dividend pay our ratio (Pay our ratio) = Total dividend paid to equity share holders / Total earnings available to equity share holders Or Dividend per share / Earnings per share DIVIDEND AND EARNINGS YIELD While the earnings per share and dividend per share are based on the book value per share, the yield is expressed in terms...
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Is Profit Maximization an Appropriate Goal

Is Profit Maximization an Appropriate Goal
Is Profit Maximization an Appropriate Goal Every business organisation’s aim is to make profit and more profit. Does it end there? What should be the real motive behind running an organization? Profit maximization alone does not help the organization to firmly plant its feet in the business environment, as the success of an organization in the long run is decided by many critical factors like, market share, value of the company shares, market stand, image etc. So, shall we say, let wealth maximization be the goal of any organization, which focuses on increasing the “earnings per share” of the share holders. What is Profit Maximization? Profit maximization does not take into consideration, the interest of share holders or stake holders, who ought to be the ultimate beneficiaries. Concentrating on short term profits confines a firm and limits its scope and growth whereas; value creation is something that the management should aim for, as it helps to increase the “net worth” of a company. Mere price versus output calculations make firms to operate in a profitable manner, but it should never be the only objective of a firm, as it has the moral and social responsibility to patronize its shareholders by increasing the net worth of the company. Learn How to Profit In Forex With Market Rhythms Underlying Logic While maximizing profit, a firm either produces maximum output for a given amount of input, or uses minimum input for producing a given output. Thus the underlying logic for profit maximization is efficiency. Under perfect competitive market conditions, profit serves as a perfect measure for the performance of a firm. If profit is the motive of a firm, it fails to consider the time value of money which is an important criterion that decides the success of a firm, and also it values benefits received today and after a period as the same. Moreover the uncertainty factor is there to be considered too. Firms always prefer to have smaller but surer profits rather than larger benefits but less certain. Impact of Taxes When we talk about profits, the next indispensable factor will be the taxes that demand a portion of your profit. Maximizing profits after the payment of taxes facilitates the firm to increase the net profit ratio to serve the best interests of the owners. But, this also fails to maximize the economic welfare of the owners, as it does not take into account, the timing and uncertainty of the benefits. Wealth maximization is the ideal alternative that is consistent with the survival goal and also with the personal objectives of managers such as recognition, power, status and personal wealth. The Right Balance between Risk and Return Mangers while deciding on investment options, seek to achieve a right balance between risk and return. If the firm borrows heavily to finance its operations, care should be taken to ensure that, the rate of return on investment should be sufficient enough to support the payment of interests on borrowings and also to repay the principal. If the firm is not able to “service the debt” there is a danger of the firm becoming bankrupt or insolvent. The firm’s investment and financing decisions are unavoidable and continuous. In order to make rational decisions, the firm must have a goal, which is nothing but the “shareholder’s wealth maximization” which is theoretically logical and operationally...
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