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Research and Development

Research and Development
Research and Development – Strategic Key for Competitive Advantage Product Innovation and Process Improvement:  With the increasing pace of liberalization and ferocity of competition in the corporate business world, it is mandatory for the firms to invest in research and development activities to sustain in the market. In most of the developing countries, scant attention has been paid to research and development activities. A survey indicates that countries like Japan and United States of America spend 2.8 percent of their Gross National Product on R and D, while it is a mere 0.9 percent of the Gross Domestic Product in the case of some Asian countries. What role does research & development play in the industry and economy? Why it is important for the developing countries to invest more on R and D? In spite of the tax rebate offered by most of the governments for R and D, why industries don’t contribute much to indigenous research? Global Competition: It becomes difficult for business organisations to compete in national and international markets both on quality and cost fronts, primarily because of absence of strong base in science and technology. Third world nations are used to buying technology from developed nations, that make them dependent and technology starved. Limited resource is another problem faced by these business firms, the allocation of which becomes difficult owing to rising costs. Invasion of Multinational and Trans national Giants: Another serious aspect to be considered is the invasion of multinational and transnational giants in every sector due to liberalization, globalization and privatization policies of the developing nations. This leads to panic in the industry, as a result of which, the business firms either go for forged alliances or infuse large amounts of funds into R and D activities hurriedly, both of which is a futile exercise to protect themselves from the onslaught of transnational companies. Science and Technological Advancement: The wiser move for the business firms to withstand the competition on an international level, would be to build their empires on a sustainable basis, by honoring the scientific and technological efforts. A thorough knowledge of all the research activities progressing around the world proves useful in managing their activities and operating with limited resources. This demands a long term plan that will support, strengthen and nurture the specified area of science base selected for research and development. Research Management: A well devised research management programme will help the business firms to formulate short and long term technical plans that aid in the research programme. It is very important for a country to encourage the budding population to become more research oriented, that will help the nation prosper in terms of science and technology, besides which, it also helps in the growth of one’s own economy. Chanakya’s 7 Secrets of Leadership The Research and Development strategic management lays emphasis on formulating plans, that support the short and long term objectives of a business firm, by employing innovative minds in the process and periodically reviewing and restructuring strategies in the light of changing demands of the society. The focus of an R and D manager should be on appraisal of technological and competitive environment, assessment of corporate strengths and weaknesses and making strategic decisions, while formulating R and D...
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Factors Influencing Global Economy

Factors Influencing Global Economy
Factors That Influence Global Economy The industrial and business environment of developing countries has been subjected to a sea of changes owing to the economic reforms and policies in the light of globalization, privatization and liberalization. A long term economic vision is necessary for these countries to establish themselves in the global market which facilitates the process of becoming self sufficient in due course of time. Let me present you with a synopsis of how this change can happen and how countries are adapting themselves in lieu of the global economic boom. Multi Brand Retail Markets: Many multinational companies have acquired and are trying to acquire a major part of equity in multibrand retail markets of the host country and sometimes they opt for Joint ventures to factorize the economy of scale which also proves to be a win-win situation for both the parties. Developing countries have altered their economic views on foreign direct investment and are very liberal in their attitude in providing with the necessary licenses. The entry of multinational companies and their potential investment has even altered core sectors like power, oil and telecommunications. Moreover, the benefit of cheap labor, economic subsidies for the start of operations in economically backward regions lures foreign investors. Rush of Entrepreneurship: There is a rush of entrepreneurship in the developing countries, in the form of setting up of small scale industries, cottage industries for which liberal subsidies are provided by the governments to encourage the act of entrepreneurialism. Also people want to go for diversification, mergers and acquisitions in the wake of global competition. Capital Markets’ Role: Capital markets have gained new buoyancy. The rapid growth of stock market and its influence over the international economic scenario have made foreign brokers to keenly follow the market changes for potential investment. The one striking feature of the economy of developing countries is that, it is a self made economy and withstands the pressures of the business cycle, such as recession and inflation, unlike foreign markets that have failed to stabilize their markets owing to what is called sub prime lending, a plan that has failed to achieve the desired economic growth. Instead of making the capital market alive with fresh infusions of funds, it has left many banks and financial institutions bankrupt. Banking Sector: Banking sector has scaled to greater heights and has come under a competitive environment. Deregulation of interest rates to attract potential investors, new technology, products and aggressive marketing usher in new competition; disinvestment of government equity in nationalized banks have made banks to operate as commercial institutions and their services get marketed as branded consumer products. Financial services have emerged as a new business and funding options are aplenty increasing the chances of raising capital. This has evolved as a separate and major source of business fetching revenue to the service providers. Private Sector: Private sector is gaining importance in countries like India, where they have entered all the core industries like oil, mining, telecommunications, road building, railways, ports, civil aviation etc. This serves as a revenue source for the government and this kind of economic restructuring has brought a wave of enthusiasm amongst the potential investors. Imports have become an entrepreneurial activity and are out of the government domain and this has been facilitated by relaxation of licensing hassles. These are some of the recent trends in the developing countries that have captured the interest of multinational...
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Global Marketing Strategies

Global Marketing Strategies
Key Strategies of Global Marketing Globalization means many things to many people. For some it is a new paradigm – a set of fresh beliefs, working methods and economic, political and socio-cultural realities in which the previous assumptions are no longer valid. For developing countries, it means integration with the world economy. It can be better understood if we look it at this perspective- “the world integrated into one huge market”. It calls for the removal of all trade barriers among countries and a perfect competitive market prevails and the stress can lead to many positive and possible outcomes in terms of Quality Quantity Uniqueness Foreign exchange Benefits to the host country Increased productivity leading to Economic growth Well, it does not end there. An MNC (multi national company), by operating in more than one country gains r and d, production, marketing and financial advantages in terms ofcost and labor that other competitors may not enjoy. The global company views the world as one market, minimize the importance of national boundaries, sources, and raise capital and markets wherever it can do the job best. Why do companies go global? One reason could be the rapid shrinking of time and distance across the globe thanks to faster communication, speedier transportation, growing financial flows and rapid technological changes. It is being realized that the domestic markets are no longer adequate and rich. Japanese have flooded the U. S. Market with automobiles and electronic goods because the home market was not big enough to absorb whatever was produced. Companies at the first stage of globalization have only passive dealings with foreign individuals and organizations. By the second stage, companies deal directly with their overseas counterparts, though they might continue to use third parties also. The company might decide to set up an import or export department. Next comes the shedding of domestic capacity and floating an international organization and have a direct hand in exporting, importing, and perhaps producing goods and services abroad. Seldom companies reach this stage, even if they do, they recede later. The company can have a strong foothold in the countries it is organizing its activity only by way of * Superior product quality * Demand * Customer preference for that particular product range that the company offer * A dynamic CEO projecting and boosting company’s image, * Brand image * Availability of skilled labor * Licenses * Access to necessary infrastructure * Feasible financial structure * Viability in the long run * Marketing mix Chennai in India has become a hub for so many corporate as well as global companies since the business climate is very favorable and enterprising. Some of the strategies in globalization would be * Deciding whether to go global * Deciding which markets to enter * Deciding how to enter the market * Learning to handle differences * Adjusting the managing process * Deciding organization structure * Selecting a managerial approach. Developing countries like India have adopted new economic policies that are expected to encourage the international companies setting their foot in India, by which it compels many Indian companies to pursue internationalization vigorously. True globalization marks the beginning of a new economic era of growth and...
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Economic Growth Strategies for Developing Countries

Economic Growth Strategies for Developing Countries
Economic Growth Strategies A Purview on Economic Growth Strategies for Developing Countries A developing country is one where the per capita income is low relative to that of fully developed countries. In human terms developing countries typically have major population percentage with poor health, low levels of literacy, inadequate dwellings and meager diets. The key to development rests on four fundamental factors namely human resources, natural resources, capital formation and technology. Human resources: A lot of poor countries are forever running hard just to stay in place. Even as a developing nation’s GDP rises, so does its population. So it becomes a mammoth task for such nations to overcome poverty with birth rates so high. Equitable distribution of wealth cannot happen in an economy unless and until it becomes self sufficient. One strategy will be to curb the population, even if such actions run against prevailing religious norms. Strategies for Developement Economic planners in developing countries lay great emphasis on the following strategies of development with regard to human capital: Control disease and improve health and nutrition Improve education, reduce illiteracy and train workers Above all, do not underestimate the importance of human resources. Literate people are knowledgeable and resourceful; their analytical skills help them to weigh the pros and cons of specific social situations that affect their standards of living. Asian countries like India and China with exploding population figures are in a situation to invest their human capital for productive purposes. Pinning Your Way to Profit With Pinterest Natural Resources: Some developing nations with meager endowments of natural resources such as land and minerals have to divide the available resources among the dense population. Perhaps the most valuable of all the resources would be arable land, as most of the people in developing countries employ themselves in farming, which is the primary economic activity. Hence the productive use of land with appropriate conservation, fertilizers and tillage will go- far in increasing a poor nation’s output. More over land ownership patterns are a key to providing farmers with strong incentives to invest in capital land’s yield. When farmers own land, they are more willing to make improvements, such as irrigation systems and undertake appropriate conservation practices. The governments have to think in these lines if their economy is based on agricultural activity: Farmers should be appraised about modern farming techniques and provided with farming equipments and fertilizers at subsidized rates. Note:-nothing should be given as free as freebies make them lethargic and unmotivated. Much of cultivable lands are being destroyed for commercial purposes which have to be checked. Power generation and supply should be copious and uninterrupted as farming, solely is dependent on availability and usage of ground water. Pumping of water is done through jet pumps and electric motors. Budding population can make a marked difference in the field of farming, as it is impossible for a nation to generate white collar jobs for everyone and it definitely elevates the capacity of youth from being mere employees to that of owners. Organic farming has found a place for itself in international market and human capital of developing nations can be employed in research and development of new strains that will facilitate to capture the global market. Capital formation: Rates of productive capital formation are low in developing countries because of deprived income; little can be saved for the future. The financing of growth in poor countries has always been an unstable link in the productive mechanism. Countries should definitely have a balanced and cautious approach when they plan to finance ambitious development programmes as they will be forced to borrow heavily from other developed countries or the World Bank. Technological change and innovations: This is...
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