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Aim and Scope of Operations Management

Aim and Scope of Operations Management
Aim and Scope of Operations Management The management of conversion or transformation process which accepts inputs and delivers usable goods and services is what is called “operations management.” The inputs may be in the form of, capital, material, labor, technology, information, machines etc. The process takes place in an effective and efficient manner through operations planning, design, management and control. Earlier it was called, production or manufacturing management. Since operation is a general term in a productive environment whose output may be goods or services, the term operations management has become more appropriate.  The aim of a good operational management would be High level of productivity Competitive cost and quality Timely delivery Producing goods as per the requirements of the consumer, that is customer oriented. Flexibility and responsiveness in the production of goods and services Production or operation in the three important sectors of an economy, namely, agriculture, industry and service, creates national wealth and serves as an index for the growth of that economy. One has to understand the link between operations management and other functional areas to appreciate its scope. The goals of the operations strategy has to necessarily be in tandem with the overall corporate strategy to accomplish the goals of a firm. Scope of Operations Management From marketing department, cues regarding customer preference and market segmentation in terms of product, price and volume are supplied to the production department, based on which the production planning is concluded. From Research and development comes the product design and process technology. Human resource is an integral part of production process and also a crucial input. Man power planning by the human resource department plays a major role in recruiting, selecting, training, evaluating and empowering labor force. Operations Strategy The great diversity in products and services available in the market should be taken into consideration before deciding on your operations strategy. At one end we have custom made products that are designed and manufactured to suit the specific needs of the consumers. For instance, custom made shoes, shirts, suits, furniture etc. Here the emphasis is on quality and delivery where the customer is not very much bothered about the price. At the other end manufacturers go for highly standardized products that are available “off the shelf.” Say, home appliances, detergents, soaps etc., here the product differentiation is very minimal and the focus is on competitive pricing as the material is available in plenty. Economy of Scale: A customized product would require a manufacturing set up that can handle a wide variety of general products. The sequence of operations for each product would vary in the manufacturing system making a customized product. So, a process oriented manufacturing system is designed, where similar facilities doing similar operations are grouped together and departmentalized. Standardized products go for a product focused manufacturing system, to reduce the “through put” time as large volumes are required. To be cost effective, each product should have a dedicated line of production to take advantage of the “economy of scale.” Intermediate types of products also find their place in the market and they are produced in a production layout that has a mix of product and process orientation. Here a whole range of products and services are created for the benefit of the customers. In a long term basis, manufacturers should aim to develop new technology, environmentally viable products, increase R and D activity, update skills of work force and managers and focus on development of new products, process and...
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What is Operations Management

What is Operations Management
What is Operations Management and Why is it Important? Operation is that part of as organization, which is concerned with the transformation of a range of inputs into the required output (services) having the requisite quality level. Management is the process, which combines and transforms various resources used in the operations subsystem of the organization into value added services in a controlled manner as per the policies of the organization. The set of inter-related management activities, which are involved in manufacturing certain products, is called as production management. If the same concept is extended to services management, then the corresponding set of management activities is called as operations management. Production is defined as ‘the step-by-step conversion of one form of material into another form through chemical or mechanical process to create or enhance the utility of the product to the user’. Thus production is a value addition process. At each stage of processing, there will be value addition. Edwood Buffa defines production as ‘a process by which goods and services are created’. Some examples of production are: manufacturing custom-made products like, boilers with a specific capacity, constructing flats, some structural fabrication works for selected customers, etc., and manufacturing standardized products like, car, bus, motor cycle, radio, television, etc. CHARACTERISTICS OF A PRODCUTION SYSTEM 1. Production is an SYSTEMATIZED activity, so every production system has an objective. 2. The system transforms the various inputs to useful outputs. 3. It WORKS IN TANDEM with the other organisation systems. 4. There exists a feedback about the activities, which is essential to control and improve system performance. EVOLUTION OF PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT Why Operations Management is Important? Increases productivity of every organization Leads to economic growth and development Helps employees to receive high wages Earns profit for a company Also plays a strategic role in a firm’s competitive success Want to Learn Some Interesting Operations Management Terms? Capacity planning—The process of determining the production capacity needed by an organization to meet changing demands for its products. Different types of capacity exist. For example, design capacity is the maximum amount of work that an organization is capable of completing in a given period; effective capacity is the maximum amount of work that an organization is capable of completing in a given period due to constraints such as quality problems, delays, and material management. Efficiency—Performing activities at the lowest possible cost. Enterprise resource planning (ERP)—Large, sophisticated software systems used for identifying and planning the enterprise-wide resources needed to coordinate all activities involved in producing and delivering products. Forecasting—The process of predicting future events, including product demand. Just-in-time—A philosophy designed to achieve high-volume production through elimination of waste and continuous improvement. Lean systems—Sometimes synonymous with just-in-time, it is a philosophy that takes a total system approach to creating efficient operations through the elimination of waste. Location analysis—Identifying the best location for facilities. Mass customization—The ability of a firm to highly customize its goods and services at high volumes through its operations management function. Product design—The process of deciding on the unique and specific features of a product. Process selection—The process of identifying the unique features of the production process that will give the product its unique characteristics. Process selection typically goes hand in hand with product design, as we need to create a process that gives rise to the particular product design desired. An excellent product design is worthless if a process for its creation cannot be developed. Productivity—A measure of how efficiently an organization converts inputs into outputs. It is usually measured by a ratio of output divided by input. Productivity is essentially a scorecard of how efficiently resources are used and a measure of competitiveness. Productivity is measured on many organizational levels—from measuring labor and machine productivity...
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