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Costing and Profitability

Costing and Profitability
Costing and Profitability Analysis Relationship between Cost of Production and Sales Volume: The cost of production and volume of sales are the inter-dependent determinants of profit. The analysis of cost behavior in relation to the changing volume of sales and its impact on profit is very important to determine the break even level of a firm. The level at which total revenue equals total costs, is said to be the break even level where there is no-profit or no-loss. Sales beyond break-even volume bring in profits. Generally production is preceded by the process of demand forecasting, to decide on the volume of production, the produce of which will be absorbed by the market. Pricing and promotions come at a later stage. Costing is done to predict the costs of production and resultant profits at various levels of activity. Download this comprehensive power-point presentation on Break-Even Analysis. Cost Volume Profit or CVP Analysis: CVP analysis or Cost-Volume-Profit analysis helps a firm to study the interrelationship between these three factors and their effect on clean profit. The process also includes an analysis about the external factors that affect the volume of production, such as market demand, competitor threat and internal factors such as availability of infrastructure, capital and labor force. This CVP analysis is a boon to the managers to locate the bottlenecks that hinder the productivity and find a way out, by adjusting either the levels of activity or controlling the cost.   Picture Courtesy : The Power of Break-Even Analysis Pricing: Pricing is the most important factor that makes your product competitive. The costs of production can be classified into fixed costs, variable costs and semi variable costs. Fixed costs remain constant and tend to be unaffected by the changes in volume of output; whereas variable costs vary directly with the volume of output and semi-variable as the name implies are partly fixed and partly variable. Cost accountants of the modern era fully support variable costing for the purpose of cost accounting, listing its merits as follows: Variable costing talks about contribution margin, which is the excess of sales over variable costs. If this is going to be high, sufficient enough to cover the fixed costs, then profit is assured for the firm. It is a key factor to determine the percentage of profit. Variable costing assigns only those costs to a product that varies directly with the changing levels of production, which is helpful in making a distinction of profit made from sales and those resulting from changes in production and inventory. Segregating the costs into fixed and variable is done for the purpose of providing information to reflect cost-volume-profit relationships and to facilitate management decision-making and control. Some applications of variable costing that facilitates management decision making: Profit planning: By increasing the volume of sales or decreasing the selling price of the product. Performance evaluation of profit centres:Like, sales division, marketing department, product line etc., Decide on product priorities: In view of market potential and profit potential Make or Buy Decisions: Depending on the production capacity and sales demand. Budgeting: Flexible budgeting and cost control are possible by variable costing technique and the striking feature is the treatment given to fixed costs, where it is treated as a period cost and not apportioned among all the departments and products that enable the firm to understand the movement of profits in the same direction as that of the sales. Although considered to be a controversial technique and weighed against the conventional methods of costing such as absorption costing, it is believed that it is to stay and exist as the next step in the evolutionary method of cost accounting....
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Self Motivation

Self Motivation
Self Motivation-Key to Managerial Success What is Self Motivation : Ability to do what needs to be done without external influence. How does your company become successful? Just because you have cutting edge technology! Surplus capital! Excellent Infrastructure! Reliable Workforce! Definitely not. A COMPETENT VALUE-DRIVEN CORPORATE MANAGER would make all the difference. Even his very presence would make the atmosphere ELECTRIC. Only some are gifted or bestowed with top managerial qualities. How! Is it an innate quality or imbibed! It is a topic worth the discussion, because it proves to be the liveliest element in the management process. Well, when top management decides to recruit a good manger, what are the qualities they would be in favor of? Think about it, we even expect a house maid to be sincere, on time and loyal to us. When it comes to corporate dealings, the first and foremost quality desired will be “BEARING HUGE RESPONSIBILITY“. Accountability, transparency and control towards the day to day affairs of the company follow suit. Robot Check Sorry, we just need to make sure you’re not a robot. For best results, please make sure your browser is accepting cookies. These managers who are also leaders serve as a ROLE MODEL for all the other employees SET STANDARDS FOR PERFORMANCE Motivate their employees Set a Brand Image for the company Be a GOOD LIAISON Problem solver Counselor and make the company special. Strategic Direction: When we talk about value, we talk about the influence that the value has on the STRATEGIC DIRECTION OF THE FIRM, which involves shaping up the character and image of the firm. A good manager EVOLVES OVER A PERIOD OF TIME. While considering the HEAVY TURN OVER TREND that has set in lately in the corporate environment, it becomes important for the top management to pick their HR lot carefully. How do you empower your trusted persons is a question that every Boss has to ask himself to retain the best talent. Good Managers stick to the firm and they contribute to the GROWTH OF THE FIRM. Training plays, of course a major part in the DEVELOPMENT OF MANAGERS but I feel that ONLY THE PERSON WHO MAKES THE BEST USE OF HIS SUBCONSCIOUS INNER DRIVE, REACHES THE TOP. Loyalty is an outdated term in this modern world and the minimum you could expect is SINCERITY. Self motivated managers easily regulate the environment and makes the climate cordial. He has to don many roles, A BRIDGE BETWEEN TOP MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEES MANAGE THE INTEREST(OF BOTH THE FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS AND EMPLOYEES) FORMULATING MARKET STRATEGIES SHOULD BE A TECH-SAVVY A MAN OF EMPATHY A MAN OF BRILLIANT INTUITIONS(ESPECIALLY WHEN IT CONCERNS STOCK MARKET) EVER LEARNING VERSATILE and much more. Practice makes a man perfect is the saying. It suits the corporate business world too, provided the man is intelligent, capable and smart in taking decisions. Always a thinking person, an efficient manager would be on the look out for opportunities and resources that could benefit the firm. Every one of you who aspires to catch up with top positions in the business world must do a “THOROUGH SELF ANALYSIS” as to how agreeable you are in the likert scale of the...
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Call Centre Challenges for HR Personnel

Call Centre Challenges for HR Personnel
Call Centre Challenges  The emergence of numerous “call centers” in developing countries like India and China, has posed some serious threats to the employees of these concerns. The concept of call center is a new find of the modern era, where they handle volumes of business process outsourcing for the developed countries. What are the various operations carried on in a call center? They handle inbound and outbound customer care services, telemarketing services, e-mail management services, pay roll accounting, help desk and many more back end activities. Benefits of Outsourcing: It proves to be a win-win situation for both the parties; the outsourcing company benefits from cheap labor, and the company that does the job earns good pay in the form of foreign exchange. But one has to understand the nuances of the call center operations; how it can be really worked out to one’s benefit? If you have a direct link with the outsourcing company, there is no need for you to share the profit. If the job is sublet to you, then your share gets reduced down the line. And also, the pay comes in a cycle of 45 days or so. So, it becomes mandatory that you should have the wherewithal to rotate your own funds for that 45 day period time, to fulfill establishment costs, power costs, salary and other miscellaneous expenses. What is the Pressure Situation? Let’s not get into the details of how to establish a call center and the necessary infrastructure to start one. The business has created a pressure situation, as it calls for erratic work hours and disturbed eating and sleep patterns. Definitely, it affects the youth, who form the major population of call centers, psychologically and socially as well. The erratic work schedules, (they work round the clock in shifts) the intense work pressure to achieve targets eventually leads to a pressure cooker like stress situation. Their altered sleep cycle is dangerous to both their physical and mental health. It is an evident fact that more number of persons working in this industry has started complaining about their physical and mental problems like Anxiety Depression Relationship-related problems Headaches Disturbed appetite Hearing loss Changes in thyroid and adrenaline levels Loss of weight Obesity and Smoking to reduce immense tension is also witnessed. The call center business has been a flourishing business in developing nations, though recently we tend to see a lull in the market, owing to the government regulations of the developed nations. Even the economy of developed countries, has taken a huge plunge owing to the recent economic recession. Naturally, when their financial markets have become unstable, they would not want to outsource to low-cost developing countries. The BPO’s or KPO’s (business process outsourcing and knowledge process outsourcing), as they are called should not become a fad, instead, developing nations can also concentrate on indigenous business clients, that are in need of their services. Note: India is the leading country for offshore outsourcing. The offshore outsourcing industry started in India and it has been able to grow the IT and BPO export sector to $47 billion and capture more than half the offshore outsourcing...
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5 Tips to Better Employee Retention

5 Tips to Better Employee Retention
New Paradigms in Employee Retention What is Employee Retention: It refers to the various policies and practices which let the employees stick to an organization for a longer period of time . It refers to the ability of an organization to retain its employees. HRM Practices: A company to ground itself successfully in the chosen field of activity should adhere to sound human resource management practices, as it is firmly believed that human resource is an asset and investment in human capital paves way for comprehensive development. Many firms fail, in spite of being resourceful in terms of capital, infrastructure and technology. The reason shall be attributed to ineffective handling of human skills or misappropriation of human potential. Human resource management involves not only in recruiting and selecting the right people but also empowering them by suitable training to enhance their technical skills and expertise to perform tasks. The Purpose of Training: Training ultimately aims at converting theorists to performers and orients itself towards accomplishing the enterprise objectives. Big corporate companies concentrate on talent acquisition from the pool of fresh graduates and experienced hands in the IT industry as well. They create a lively corporate atmosphere with “an intelligence network” contributing to the success of the organization. Recruitment and Selection: If you have a feeling that, recruitment and selection are mere procedures to be followed for the sake of selection of human resource, kindly change that notion. These are the crucial steps which determine the fate of your organization. People from different disciplines form a team to achieve the goals and objectives of your organization. Leading a group with such diversity is a feat in itself. Selecting knowledge workers whom you believe will achieve your corporate mission and devising the human resource practices in accordance with their work-life balance will yield great results. Training Programmes: Training programs are developed for different spheres of activity by experienced trainers under the guidance of the top management. Proper training to the trainees ensures maximum work done in minimum time. Training not only makes individuals more informative and knowledgeable but also action buffs. Learning is a key process in training that brings about the desired change in behavior. Corporate companies are also concerned about the career prospects of employees working for them, as they are very well aware of the fact that providing lateral and vertical growth prospects for their workers is the only possible way to retain them. Another way for employee retention is to offer compensation on par or higher than industry standards and periodic review of their pay or compensation in accordance with the performance standards. This method of evaluation is suitable only for companies where workers are highly self motivated and have the capability to understand what it takes to reach the next level in their career ladder. Flexi-Timings: Flexibility is introduced in work life by some of the big corporates who try to visualize the practical problems faced by their employees, particularly women, who come to work. They offer “flexi-timings” in work and support by running “crèche” to nurture new borns. It has been proved that a small siesta after lunch improves the brain activity. The HR policies formulated by the management must encompass all the elements needed for a holistic vision, mission and business growth. This can be made possible by maximizing the efficiency of human capital that adds value to the organization. Note: Companies will also continue to remain generous with pay packages but the big change will be that they will invest a lot more in training and development. “Acquiring talent is much more expensive than grooming...
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Creating a Niche Market for Your Product

Creating a Niche Market for Your Product
Creating a Niche Market for Your Product Range Abstract to Concrete Ideas: The process of new product development starts with the search for new ideas. Abstract ideas are molded in such a way to suit the market needs. Business persons who want to capture a major share of the market have to think out of the box, to tide over the competition. Small things can make a big difference. Monotonous pattern of thinking will not help you in the long run to survive and sustain in the market. The Significance of R&D: The objective is to obtain ideas for new products, new attributes for the existing products and new usage for the existing product line. Why do you think so much of investment goes into research and development? The fruits of such R and D activities are reflected in the form of improved sales turn over. Market updates on a daily basis also gives you an excellent feedback about the new products that throng the market. Think about this, it is not possible for every organization to invest such huge sums in R and D which demands technically qualified personnel to carry out the research activities and it is next to impossible that each and every firm in the market can establish the necessary infrastructure for the purpose of research. SWOT Analysis: What might be the solution? Companies generally rely on internal sources, customers, competitors, distributors, suppliers and others for new product ideas. The sales force of a firm can provide excellent inputs as they meet customers on a regular basis. Through SWOT analysis, a company can make a conscious, deliberate and systematic effort to identify opportunities that can be profitably exploited. Top management should encourage the employees to think more imaginatively to create a niche market for its product range. The management has to prioritise its objectives first and channelise the efforts of employees accordingly. Picture Courtesy : The power of Product Thinking Steps to be followed in new product development: Generation of new product ideas Screening of ideas – It serves the purpose of reducing the large number of ideas generated, to spot the good ones and drop the bad ones. Concept development and testing – An inherent idea must be developed into a product concept, should include the customer, the major customer benefits and the features defining it. Development of marketing strategy – This is helpful in launching the product at the right time and right place to the right people. Business analysis – A review of cost versus profit analysis, estimated size and growth rate of the market segment, estimated sales and market share for the new product in the light of financial feasibility. Development of the product – If the business analysis gives a satisfactory report as to the rate of return on investment and pay back period, the R and D department goes ahead with manufacturing the prototype which is the preliminary version of the final product. Test marketing – It provides an opportunity to understand market response to the new product and its proposed marketing programme in a more realistic market environment than in simulated conditions. Commercialization – The product is released into the market, distribution channels are established, thus initiating its life cycle. The success of new products can be attributed to two aspects, one is creativity and the other being...
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