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Executive Development

Executive Development
Executive Development – Options are Wide Open Who is an Executive: A person or group having administrative or managerial authority in an organization. While “executive” and “manager” and “leader” are often used interchangeably, “executive” is commonly used to signify the top 5% to 10% of the organization. Executive Development : aimed at developing the skills and competencies of those that (will) have executive positions in organisation. Capabilities of a Good Manager: A good manager can make an organization grow, survive and shine amidst tough competition, if he is bestowed with corporate competencies such as perseverance, capacity to put in hard work, sense of loyalty and responsibility, all of which may be inherited or acquired qualities. Loyalty stems from internalized morality that may be a result of his value system. Executive success is what the organizations should aim for, and firms should try to figure out the fundamental components that make up the success formula or equation. Road to Self-Development: In less developed countries, employees are more than satisfied if they are provided with a job that offers safety and security. Their thinking is restricted to mere physical and biological comforts and does not go beyond that point, where self development and self-actualization come into the picture. In developed countries, the situation is quite different, where the workers aim for empowerment and look for reasons that motivate them to do a job. Money also has its due role to play, and people whose wages are very meager cannot be expected to aim for empowerment, where their single motive is mere survival. Abraham Maslow’s Point of View: Abraham Maslow puts forward the hierarchical needs theory, arguing that, there are five levels of needs for people in general, right from physiological needs at the bottom of the pyramid and need for self actualization at the top, and safety, security and esteem needs coming in between. He points out that, once a need is satisfied, it ceases to be a motivator. This is so evident in our day to day lives, where wants and needs never cease to exist and once a want is satisfied, human mind wanders to catch hold of another. So, organizations should understand and analyze, what factors best motivate their employees, particularly their managers (who might serve as a source of inspiration to their subordinates).It should be remembered that non-availability of jobs leads to dissatisfaction whereas availability of jobs need not motivate employees. Some factors which have been proven to be real motivators are as following: Recognition Opportunities for self development Additional responsibilities(lateral expansion) Timely rewards(in terms of money and appreciation) Security Inculcating a sense of belongingness Conducive corporate atmosphere Corporate culture Good human relations Economic burden makes people less enthusiastic and anxious in developing countries and this hinders them from delivering to their fullest potential. Also the bureaucratic approach followed by conservative firms, autocratic leadership style and lack of supportive atmosphere make people work like automatons devoid of creativity. Such firms may show good results in terms of productivity initially, but in due course has to pay the price, in terms of absenteeism, high attrition rates and less efficiency. It has been proven that job satisfaction is directly proportional to efficiency. When people find a job tedious and monotonous, they tend to lose interest, which will be evident from their lack lustrous performance. Performance management has its bearing on executive success and by providing with ample scope for career advancement and autonomy; managers prove their mettle even within limited scope of resources. Acceleration of executive change implies the development of the executive mind for performing managerial activities in a better way. Note : A survey of CEOs in Fortune 500 enterprises indicated that executives spend little time with their...
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How to Handle Attrition

How to Handle Attrition
How to Handle Attrition Smart Retention Strategies: Before going into the details of how to retain your workforce, the first thing you must understand and realize is that each person working for you will have different expectations, perspectives and demands about his job, work environment and compensation respectively. Right at the time of recruiting and selecting the employee, his ideas must be taken into consideration and then it becomes the prerogative of the management whether to hire the person for that particular job. So the first step will be the right person for the right job, giving due importance to the anticipation of the employee who is going to become a member of your business family. Need for Open Conversation: In case of a small firm or company, it is easy for the manager to have a one on one conversation with each employee to settle his score of grievances then and there. Managers must have an open conversation without room for any ambiguity in the minds of his workers. The manager should try to protect the interest of the employees by representing their demands to the management at the right time. Many employees quit their positions because they have a nagging feeling at the back of their minds that their immediate boss is not the right kind of person to whom they can look up to and ask for support. In big corporates it is not easy to go for a one on one approach. A unique corporate culture that Trains the employees to have an uniform approach to all the systems of routine Led by an effective leader who controls and monitors the behavior and attitude of the workers possesses sound management practices that make the employees come out with their suggestions freely and induce them to participate Provides satisfactory compensation Incorporates an open door policy catering to the different needs of people and also to the different levels of management, will help the managers to have a healthy relationship with the employees. Human Wants and Needs: Human wants are unlimited and when one want is satisfied, we want more of the same or yet another of a higher order. Approach your workforce to satisfy their craving either in terms of compensation or recognition which will also help to retain your workforce to a greater extent. There should be room for growth, especially for entrepreneurial minds and minds that have parallel thinking. Self-Motivation is the Key: Although motivation brings cheer amongst your workforce, self-motivated employees produce better results. Job satisfaction is a relative term; it differs with individuals, some like challenges and some are easily satisfied with an increase in salary quotient. A comprehensive appraisal on the personality of your workforce will give you a clear picture of the IQ (Intelligence Quotient) and EI (Emotional Intelligence) range of your employees which helps in designating employees in the appropriate slots. Such human rationing saves you a lot of time, energy and money as the employees are guaranteed satisfaction in their jobs. Contracts and Agreements: Contracts and agreements bind the employees to the firm only legally. How is that going to help you in terms of productivity? If one of your employees is going to work with discontent, he becomes a problem source spreading the same kind of feeling to others working with him. So it is also necessary for the management to spot out these problem persons either to bring them back into the groove or fire them without any further delay. Rising costs of living and unemployment ratios are really of economic concern, but still we find employees just like that quitting their jobs. So what is...
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Game Theory

Game Theory
Game theory and strategy What is Game Theory: Set of concepts designed for decision making in situations of competition and conflict under specified rules. The prisoner’s dilemma: The prisoner’s dilemma is a canonical example of a game, analyzed in game theory that explains why two individuals might not cooperate, even if it appears that it is in their best interest to do so; Albert W. Tucker formalized the game with prison sentence payoffs and gave it the “prisoner’s dilemma” name. To solve many practical problems that are encountered in economic, military or other disciplines, one has to deal with situations in which there are two or more conflicting parties striving for the same objective and the outcome of each action of one party depends solely on the opposite parties choice of a course of action. As we all know only one horse can win the race ultimately and the other parties only can prolong the race or see to that they make every possible move to delay the opponent’s success.  So, what’s this game theory all about? This is a special mathematical method that was evolved mainly to analyze conflict situations where the number of competitors is finite, each participant has a definite set of actions to choose and there is a conflict of interest between the competitors. So it helped the participants to reach a decision that would put them in the winning post. This theory has spilled its implications on business situations where success is the motto and conflict and competition the order of the day. Only the best among the best survive. Darwin’s theory, “Survival of the fittest” applies not only to biological organisms but also to business organizations which are also abuzz with activity. Chance Moves: Games like chess, checkers are played according to a definite set of rules laid down and these game patterns has inspired business persons to introduce strategies in business, where the concentration is mainly focused on the chance moves that defeats the opponent. Big business corporates mainly concentrate on the strengths and weaknesses of their competitors to have an edge over them. A real game is controlled and regulated by the statutory rules to be followed but a business game involves lot of killer instincts and intuitions combined with rational thinking and logic. Optimal Strategy: The first party always puts himself in the shoes of the other party and tries to perceive how the other party would react in a particular situation. Although the aim is to win, choosing the optimal strategy is what matters. It will at least keep you in bay. Precise solutions can be arrived at if you plan your game fittingly. The anticipation and thrill that is involved in a strategic game is matchless.  We witness a lot of firms imitating what the leader of the market does. The risk is borne solely by the firm introducing the change and the firm takes the major share of profit as it is the pioneer and if it loses the next strategic move is planned for. For a company with sound financial position, the chance move is worth giving a try, head or tail doesn’t matter. The stalkers are benefited by the waiting period during which they come to know of the pros and cons of the strategy employed by the leader. Games are played in the true spirit of sportsmanship, but a business faces cut throat competition. There is no space for any courtesy or liberal approach. If you are quick enough to pick the pulse of the people by gauging their preferences, analyzing the market conditions and employing timely strategies you will at least survive in...
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Roles of a HR Manager

Roles of a HR Manager
Roles of a HR Manager MANAGERIAL ROLES BY HENRY MINTZBERG AND PETER DRUCKER Henry Mintzberg, the canadian academic  observed a few managers and analysed their behaviors and arrived at some conclusions which are listed in the table below. He also identified and attributed ten managerial roles of significance in correlation with the managerial functions. S.No Management Functions % of time spent 1. Relating to external environment 1.8 2. Planning and setting Objectives 19.5 3. Decision-making 6.0 4. Organising 15.0 5. Leadership and inter-personal role 28.4 6. Communication 12.6 7. Control 12.7 8. Staffing 4.1 This table very clearly explains the role of a manager as a leader and the extent of  influence he exerts on his sub-ordinates. Proper planning and goal-setting are the key contributors for the successful functioning of a firm. LEADER VS. MANAGER Coming to the managerial roles, they can be classified as 1. Interpersonal roles 2. Informational roles 3. Decisional roles  Inter-personal roles: Figurehead role– The function is more of a ceremonial nature, like attending the family functions of employees, greeting visitors and a manager performs the symbolic duties of a head of the organization. Leader– He has to plan the HR requirements and motivates the staff to perform well. “Managers are people who do things right; leaders are people who do the right thing.” Remember a manager has to be a leader whereas it is not so in the case of a leader. Liaison– The manager acts as a link between the organization and the external environment to build image and rapport. Informational roles: Monitor– The manager has to update himself with the current scenario in order to utilize the information for organizing and prompt decision-making. Disseminator– The manager has to communicate and distribute information to his subordinates to effectively accomplish the enterprise objectives. Spokesperson– Efficiently has to communicate the company’s policies to prospective clients and others. Decisional roles: Entrepreneur– He has to be innovative by adapting  to the changes in the environment. He has to be adventurous, persistent and strategic during tough times. Disturbance handler– He has to find appropriate solutions to problems Resource allocator– He has to apportion and allocate resources properly besides delegating authority to the work force Negotiator– He has to negotiate resources outside and conflicts inside the organization. MANAGERIAL DIMENSIONS Managing:  Science or Art One perspective is Managing, like all other disciplines- whether medicine, music composing or even cricket is an art. It is “know-how.”  Still managers can use the organized knowledge about management to perform better. So let us put it this way, Managing as practice is an art; the organized knowledge underlying the practice may be referred to as a science. Let them be complementary to each other and be present in peaceful co-existence. Drucker “ON MANAGERIAL FUNCTIONS ”-A manager has to look after The specific purpose and mission of a firm Increase productivity by making the employees more productive Considerate about social impacts and social responsibilities In his view, the areas a manager has to focus and concentrate are 1. Market standing 2. Innovation 3. Productivity 4. Financial and Physical resources 5. Profitability 6. Manager performance and development 7. Worker performance and attitude 8. Public responsibility He says that business has only two functions- marketing and innovation. While others were concentrating on products and commodities, he concentrated on  people and their performance. His “management by objectives- MBO ” became a very popular concept though it faced criticism.  MBO according to Drucker is a philosophy that rests on a concept of human action, behaviour and motivation. It sets personal goals (both shortterm and longterm)  to be achieved by each individual working for the organization and coverts them into challenges to...
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Nature and Characteristics of Management

Nature and Characteristics of Management
Nature and Characteristics of Management Some good definitions on Management: According to Harold Koontz, “Management is the art of getting things done through and with people in formally organised groups.”- in his book “The Management Theory Jungle”. According to Henri Fayol, “To manage is to forecast and to plan, to organise, to command, to co-ordinate and to control.”- in his book “Industrial and General Administration”. According to Peter Drucker, “Management is a multi-purpose organ that manages business and manages managers and manages workers and work.”- in his book “The Principles of Management”. According to Mary Parker Follet, “Management is the art of getting things done through people.” According to William F.Glueck, Management is the effective utilization of human and material resources to achieve the enterprise objective. Concepts of Management: Management as an Activity Leader is the Manager Team consist of the Subordinates Synergy – Leads to enhanced performance The activities of management are:  Interpersonal activities  Decisional activities  Informative activities Management as a Process Management is a continuous process involving interaction of people and integration of human, physical and financial resources. Management as an Economic Resource Management is an important factor of production like Land Labor and Capital Management as a Team  The team comprises of Top level management- CEO ,CHAIRMAN,PRESIDENT and the like Middle level management-Department Heads Low level management-Work force or the Employees Management as an Academic Discipline Getting a management degree has become the order of the day and many reputed educational institutions are coming out with a new discipline in management course every day that rewards an exciting and challenging career for the graduates. Management professionals are the need of the hour for corporate companies to manage the dynamic environment that poses very many challeneges.  Management as a Group  Chief executive (managing director), Departmental heads Supervisors make up the management group. Nature and Characteristics of Management 1. Management is goal-oriented: The ultimate purpose of management is to achieve certain goals over a period of time. The goals must be realistic and achievable that ensure  efficient utilization of the resources and satisfy the enterprise objectives. 2. Management is universal: Where ever  there is a business activity or non-business activity, management comes into the fore. Be it a small family function or a multi crore business activity, you need people and other resources to make it a success. 3. Management is an Integrative Force: Team work creates synergy and accomplishment of the firm’s objectives by the unified and co-ordinated efforts of all the individuals working for that firm. Note: 1+1=2, we all know that . Have you heard of 1+1>2 , Yes, synergy is the combined effort of all the people working as a team that leads to enhanced performance levels facilitataing the completion of objectives in a short span of time. Dhirubhai Ambani was very popular for completing tasks in lightning speed. This was possible only because he had able administrators who shared the same kind of wavelength. 4. Management is a Social Process: You can become an excellent manager without becoming a good leader, but you cannot be an excellent leader without becoming a good manager. This explains it all. Management is a social process since it involves people and their inter personal relationship. A good manager succeeds in motivating , guiding and extracting work from people working under him. 5. Management is multidisciplinary: Management takes inspiration from  disciplines like engineering,   sociology, psychology, economics, anthropology etc. 6. Management is a continuous Process: Management is a dynamic and an on-going process. A business has to die on its own. 7. Management is Intangible:  The success of management can only be measured by the results being shown by the company like its market...
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