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Reinforcers and Behavior Changes

Reinforcers and Behavior Changes
REINFORCERS AND BEHAVIOR CHANGES Reinforcers induce and enhance the association between the cue and the expectancy. This leads to increased performance levels and positive attitude development. This is an effective and efficient strategy that has been proved to be successful. Reinforcement is inevitable for learning process and in a dynamic corporate business environment, unlearning the old things and learning and adapting oneself to satisfy the needs of the changing environmental and economic factors is the critical success factor that serves as the backbone of the success of the company. Significance of Learning: Learning is not the only attribute that gets enhanced by reinforcers; as a result there is a repetition of desirable behavior that helps in maintaining the consistency, cordiality and climate of the organization. Reinforces increase the strength of response leading to desirable or undesirable consequences depending upon the kind of reinforcer, which might be a reward or a punishment. Either way it elicits response that gets strengthened in course of time. Mindset of People: The management side that is the deciding authority has to come to clear terms with the kind of treatment applicable on specific situations; say for instance when there is a need to complete a project in the stipulated time or achieve quantifiable targets which may prove very challenging or increase the production capacity in order to retain a major market share. Whatever be the case, the morale of the workers down the line, executives who coordinate the process, the managers who manage and report has to be maintained in the highest order. The mind set of the people working for you is very important as it encompasses the quality of work done, commitment to duty and determination to reach the target on time. Rewards: Rewards always make people happy and are found to be positively reinforcing. If you feel that monetary rewards are always a better stimulus, you are wrong. Money is always considered to be a reward; to consider it as a reinforcer cannot be neglected but at the same time it definitely is not a positive reinforcer.Feedback on performance is rated high on the reinforcer scale which takes you to the next level as a performer. Modern organizations have understood the system’s anomaly that gives undue importance to the huge amount of data that speaks volumes about people and their merits and achievements. Is it really enough to know things about people? People expect feedback about their performance and people with some degree of achievement definitely have an intense desire to know how they are doing? The more specific your feedback is, better the impact and greater the delay between the performance and feedback, the less the effect. Work Environment: The work environment itself can serve as a very good positive reinforcer provided there is freedom of expression, liberty to participate and an open door policy adopted by the managers and superiors. The top level management must take utmost care to design the reward system in such a way that it warrants fairness and equity. Employees are motivated to go for self appraisals with goal setting that is the biggest reinforcer of all times. Recognition: Recognition, rewards and praise tend to boost the ego of individuals which you can work it up to your advantage. Punishment is one of the most used and convenient but least understood and badly administered aspect of learning and reinforcing. Punishment equally alters the behavior of your subordinates which becomes more complex in course of time. Positively dealing with your subordinates by giving them one more chance, of course with a warning might serve the purpose. If punishments modify the behavior of a person and make...
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Theory of Demand and Supply

Theory of Demand and Supply
Demand and Supply in Different Markets Demand Criteria Since the analysis of a business firm is central to managerial economics, we are primarily interested in the demand for a #commodity faced by a firm. The demand for a commodity faced by a firm depends on the size of the market, industry demand for the commodity, the form in which the market is organized and the number of firms in the industry vying for the same set of resources and customers. Demand Curve The #market demand curve for a commodity shows the various quantities of the commodity demanded in the market per time period at various alternative prices of the commodity, while holding everything else constant. The curve is negatively sloped, indicating that #price and #quantity are inversely related. The things held constant in drawing a market demand curve for a #product are the number of customers in the market, consumer’s income, the prices of related commodities and tastes. Types of Markets #Monopoly and #Perfect Competition Coming back to the form of a business firm, at one end there exist the monopolist (the sole producer of a commodity for which there are no good substitutes), and at the other end, perfect competition, where there are a large number of firms producing a homogenous product and each firm is too small to affect the price of the commodity by its own actions. In such a case, each firm is a price taker unlike the monopolist who is a price maker thanks to the product exclusivity factor. #Oligopoly In oligopoly there are only a few firms in the industry producing either a homogenous or differentiated product. Since there are only a few firms, the pricing, advertising and other promotional behavior of each firm greatly affect the other firms in the industry and evoke imitation or duplication. We witness many industrial giants fighting for their market share in the respective industrial domains. #Monopolistic In monopolistic competition, there are many firms selling a differentiated product. As the name implies, monopolistic competition has elements of both competition and monopoly. The monopoly element arises because each firm’s product is somewhat different from other firm’s products that facilitate the firms to have some degree of control over the price. Although we try to establish an inverse relationship between price and demand, the other side of the coin shows a different picture in that, as the income levels of a consumer is on an increasing trend, his or her purchasing power increases. Consumers tend to purchase more of most commodities like automobiles, housing, travel and so on, when the income rises. There are some goods, however of which the consumer purchases decline as income rises- for example, maize and similar cheap foods as the consumer has the power to buy goods with better quality and there is no need for a compromise. Demand is one of the most important aspects of managerial economics, since a firm would not be established or survive if a sufficient demand for its product did not exist or could not be created. A firm could have the most efficient production techniques and the most effective #management, but still without a demand for its product that is sufficient to cover all production and selling costs over the long run, it simply could not survive. Demand is thus essential for the creation, survival and profitability of a...
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