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Project Management

Project Management
Meticulous Project Management Fundamental Aspect of a Project: Planning is the fundamental aspect of any management system as it sets the direction or pathway, which the firm has to follow in order to accomplish the goals and objectives of an organization. In a project management or a process management, planning is the key function followed by preparation of a proposal or a report that analyses and defines the resources necessary to carry on the project. This project report can then be sent for evaluation by an expert consultant to determine the feasibility and viability of the project. Organising to Get the Desired Result: A project undertaken has to be meticulously planned and organized to achieve the desired result in the given time frame. One has to understand that a project differs from a process in that, it involves fixed time fame and cost frame.Say,for instance, your firm is rewarded with a project to design ERP solutions for a big corporate company. What will be step one? You will try to gather all the details regarding organization structure and hierarchy, people involved and their designations, availability of physical resources, whether the corporate firm is technically equipped, product portfolio, strategic business units and their viability, distribution channels and so on., As one is aware, enterprise resource solution software integrates production, marketing and human resource departments to facilitate even flow of information and quick execution of orders without any time delay. Data Collection: Data collection is inevitable and has to be precise to attain your set goals. The next logical step will be deciding the time frame and allocating resources (human and other physical resources) to carry on the project. If you feel that the delivery deadline cannot be met with, you have to immediately inform your sponsors about the time delay and extend your time frame for the project to materialize. On -Time Delivery: Projects that involve production and delivery of goods depend on the manufacturing cycle time and delivery lead time. Implementation becomes a cake walk if your business plan has incorporated, 1) well laid down step by step procedures, 2) leverage for uncertainty in the external environment and 3) focus on proper communication. Communicating the entire project plan as per the intentions to the people concerned is very vital for the success of a project, because people should understand, what needs to be done, what is one’s role, and the strategies evolved by the management. PERT and CPM: Program evaluation and review techniques (PERT) and critical pathway method are some of the tools that help in ascertaining the progress rate of projects. These tools help in identifying specific milestones and activities that are to be carried out in a sequential manner and also to estimate the time required for each activity, with a help of a network diagram. A very interesting and simple video explaining how to determine project duration using critical path…. Success of a project management is determined by Decision making ability Communication skills Negotiation techniques and Time management skills, of the project manager and also depends on how well it protects the interests of the stakeholders involved. A project is a comprehensive team effort with the budget and time well within the scope of the...
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Resistance to Change

Resistance to Change
Resistance to Change Resistance to change should be considered as a good sign and can be compared to fever while there is a bodily infection. It creates a platform for the firm to find out the causes for resistance and hence the solution. Causes for Resistance to Change: INDIVIDUAL RESISTANCE A.     Economic factors: When pay is tied up with productivity, resistance arises. B.      Habit: It is the habit of humans to resist anything new. C.      Fear of the unknown: Freshers always have a feeling of insecurity and uncertainty when they join an organization. D.      Change affects emotions and sentiments: People are disturbed both emotionally and sentimentally when there is a change. E.     Lack of clarification: People interpret change in different ways; so there is a need for the organization to clarify as to the nature of the change and its implied consequences or implications. F.      For the sake of opposing: Illogical and weird opinions are given by the employees just for the sake of opposing. ORGANISATIONAL RESISTANCE A.      Built-in-Mechanism: People working in groups experience shock when there is a structural change introduced in the system as they are tuned to a set of rules and procedures. B.      Group norms: This also acts as a strong source of resistance acting as a constraint C.      Threat to expertise: Technological innovations pose new threats everyday to the non-technical persons D.     Threat to established power relationship: If the powers are re-assigned amongst the managerial cadre there arises unrest E.     Threat to established resource allocation: Budget reallocations are resisted by departments that are not favored HOW TO OVERCOME RESISTANCE TO CHANGE? ·       EDUCATION AND COMMUNICATION: The logic of change must be conveyed to the employees in a convincing manner and full facts must be communicated without an iota of doubt. ·        PARTICIPATION: It becomes difficult for individuals or groups to resist change when they are made to act as change agents ·        FACILITATION AND SUPPORT: Change agents can offer counseling, training etc to pacify the employees ·      USE OF GROUP FORCE: Groups can exert more pressure on attitudes, values and behavior and hence, if the group cohesiveness is strong, the change is easier to achieve. ·        LEADERSHIP FOR CHANGE: A strong leader-manager can create a climate for psychology support from subordinates ·     NEGOTIATION: The key persons or individuals whom the management think are potential change agents can be rewarded and brought to the negotiating table ·     MANIPULATION: Twisting information, creation of false rumors, withholding undesirable information are some of the tactics of manipulation that decrease the intensity of resistance to change. ·     COERCION:  Application of force that includes threats of transfers, delay in promotions, negative performance evaluation can decrease the resistance and also the credibility. Manipulation and coercion must be considered as last options to reduce the pressure as generally people will welcome any change that is positive and beneficial to the organization in the long run. It is the responsibility of the management to project the change in a gradual and convincing manner to the employees....
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