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Short Term Financing

Short Term Financing
Short Term Financing – Interest Free Sources and Unsecured Interest Bearing Sources A firm obtains its funds from a variety of sources. Some capital is provided by suppliers, creditors, and owners, while other funds arise from earnings retained in business. In this segment, let me explain to you the sources of short-term funds supplied by creditors. Characteristics of short-term financing: Cost of Funds: Some forms of short-term financing may prove to be expensive than that of intermediate and long-term financing while some short-term sources like Accruals and Payables provide funds at no cost to the firm. Rollover Effect: Short-term finance as the name indicates must be repaid within a period of one year – though some sources provide funds that are constantly rolled over. The funds provided by payables, may remain relatively constant because, as some accounts are paid, other accounts are created. Clean-up: This happens when commercial banks or other lenders demand the firm to pay-off its short term obligation at one point in a financial year. Goals of Short-Term Financing: Funds are needed to finance inventories during a production period. Short term funds facilitate flexibility wherein, it meets the fluctuating needs for funds over a given cycle, commonly 1 year. To achieve low-cost financing due to interest free loans. Cash flow from operations may not be sufficient to keep up with growth-related financing needs Interest Free Sources: Accounts Payable Accounts payable are created when the firm purchases raw material, supplies, or goods for resale on credit terms without signing a formal note for the liability. These purchases on “open account” are, for most firms, the single largest source of short-term financing. Payables represent an unsecured form of financing since no specific assets are pledged as collateral for the liability. Even though no formal note is signed, an accounts payable is a legally binding obligation of a firm. Postponing payment beyond the end of the net (credit) period is known as “stretching accounts payable” or “leaning on the trade.” Possible costs of “stretching accounts payable” are      Cost of the cash discount (if any) forgone      Late payment penalties or interest      Deterioration in credit rating  Accruals: These are short term liabilities that arise when services are received but payment has not yet been made. The two primary accruals are wages payable and taxes payable. Employees work for a week, 2 weeks or a month before receiving a paycheck. The salaries or wages, plus the taxes paid by the firm on those wages, offer a form of unsecured short-term financing for the firm. The Government provides strict rules and procedures for the payment of withholding and social security taxes, so that the accrual of taxes cannot be readily manipulated. It is however, possible to change the frequency of paydays to increase or decrease the amount of financing through wages accrual.      Wages — Benefits accrue via no direct cash costs, but costs can develop by reduced employee morale and efficiency.      Taxes — Benefits accrue until the due date, but costs of penalties and interest beyond the due date reduce the benefits. Unsecured Interest Bearing Sources: Self-Liquidating Bank Loans The bank provides funds for a seasonal or cyclic business peak and the money is used to finance an activity that will generate cash to pay off the loan. Borrowed Funds → Finance Inventory → Peak Sales Season → Receivables → Cash → Pay Off the Loan. Three types of unsecured short-term bank loans: Single payment note – A short-term, one-time loan made to a borrower who needs funds for a specific purpose for a short period of time. Line of Credit – An informal arrangement between...
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Solvency Ratio or Leverage Ratio

Solvency Ratio or Leverage Ratio
SOLVENCY OR LEVERAGE RATIOS Long-term solvency ratios analyze the long-term financial position of the organization. Bankers and creditors are interested in the liquidity of the firm, whereas shareholders, debenture holders and financial institutions are concerned with the long term prosperity of the firm. There are thus two aspects of the long-term solvency of a firm. Ability to repay the principal amount when due Regular payment of the interest.  The ratio is based on the relationship between borrowed funds and owner’s capital it is computed from the balance sheet, the second type is calculated from the profit and loss a/c.  The various solvency ratios are  Debt equity ratio Debt to total capital ratio Proprietary (Equity) ratio Fixed assets to net worth ratio Fixed assets to long term funds ratio Debt service (Interest coverage) ratio  1.  DEBT EQUITY RATIO OR EXTERNAL – INTERNAL EQUITY RATIO Debt equity ratio shows the relative claims of creditors (Outsiders) and owners (Interest) against the assets of the firm. The relationship between borrowed fund and capital is shown in debt-equity ratio. It can be calculated by dividing outsider funds (Debt) by shareholder funds (Equity)   Ebt equity ratio = Outsider Funds (Total Debts) /  Shareholder Funds or Equity (or) Long-term Debts / Shareholders funds  Shareholders fund = Preference capital + Equity capital + Reserves & Surplus – Goodwill & Preliminary expenses  Outsiders funds = Current liabilities + Debentures + Loans The ideal ratio is 2:1. High ratio means, the claim of creditors is greater than owners and vice-versa  2.  DEBT TO TOTAL CAPITAL RATIO Debt to total capital ratio =  Total Debts / Total Assets  3.  PROPRIETARY (EQUITY) RATIO This ratio indicates the proportion of total assets financed by owners.  It is calculated by dividing proprietor (Shareholder) funds by total assets. Proprietary (equity) ratio = Shareholder funds / Total Tangible assets The ideal ratio is 1:3. A ratio below 50% may be alarming for creditors, because they incur loss during winding up. 4.  FIXED ASSETS TO NET WORTH RATIO This ratio establishes the relationship between fixed assets and shareholder funds.  It is calculated by dividing fixed assets by shareholder funds. Fixed assets to net worth ratio =  Fixed Assets X 100 / Net Worth The shareholder funds include equity share capital, preference share capital, reserves and surplus including accumulated profits.  However fictitious assets like accumulated deferred expenses etc should be deducted from the total of these items to shareholder funds.  The shareholder funds so calculated are known as net worth of the business. 5.  FIXED ASSETS TO LONG TERM FUNDS RATIO Fixed assets to long term funds ratio establishes the relationship between fixed assets and long-term funds and is calculated by dividing fixed assets by long term funds. Fixed assets to long term funds ratio = Fixed Assets X 100 / Long-term Funds 6.  DEBT SERVICE (INTEREST COVERAGE) RATIO This shows the number of times the earnings of the firms are able to cover the fixed interest liability of the firm.  This ratio therefore is also known as Interest coverage or time interest earned ratio.  It is calculated by dividing the earnings before interest and tax (EBIT) by interest charges on loans. Debt Service Ratio = Earnings before interest and tax (EBIT) / Interest...
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