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A Small Intro to Supply Chain Management

A Small Intro to Supply Chain Management
What is Supply Chain #Management? Investopedia: Supply chain management is the streamlining of a business’ supply-side activities to maximize customer value and to gain a competitive advantage in the marketplace. Supply chain management (SCM) represents an effort by #suppliers to develop and implement supply chains that are as efficient and economical as possible. THE INTEGRATED MARKETING FRAMEWORK Wikipedia: Supply chain management (SCM) is “the systemic, strategic coordination of the traditional business functions and the tactics across these business functions within a particular company and across businesses within the supply chain, for the purposes of improving the long-term #performance of the individual companies and the supply chain as a whole.” Business Dictionary: Management of material and information flow in a supply chain to provide the highest degree of customer satisfaction at the lowest possible cost. Supply chain management requires the commitment of supply chain partners to work closely to coordinate order generation, #order taking, and order fulfillment. They thereby create an extended enterprise spreading far beyond the producer’s location. Supply Chain More Environmentally Friendly   Supply Chain Management in Simpler Terms: The EFFECTIVE movement and management of materials and information as they flow from their source to the end customer. Supply Chain encompasses #purchasing, #manufacturing, warehousing, transportation, customer service, demand planning and supply planning. Supply Chain management is a daunting task and calls for proper planning and execution. OBJECTIVES OF FORECASTING Supply chain management(SCM) is the control of the supply chain as a process from supplier to manufacturer to #wholesaler to #retailer to #consumer. Supply chain management does not  only comprise  the passage of a physical product  through the chain but also any data that goes along with the product (such as order status information, payment schedules, and ownership titles) and the actual entities that handle the product from stage to stage of the supply chain. There are essentially three goals of SCM: To reduce inventory To increase the speed of transactions with real-time data exchange and To increase revenue by satisfying customer demands more efficiently. When you think of the world’s most efficient and successful performance and supply chains, what comes to mind? For me it is not Wal-mart  or Pepsi but #Mumbai Dabbawalas. The Success of Supply Chain of Dabbawalas in Mumbai –Said to be Six Sigma Compliant No over-reliance on technology, all manual operations Create an integrated performance chain, the chief, team leaders and delivery men. Acute visibility Keep it simple. Real simple with a color coding to identify where the food has to be delivered and to whom. Timely Delivery as the shelf life of food is 4-5 hours. Why is it so important for companies to get products to their customers quickly? Faster product availability is significant  to increasing sales and there’s a sizeable profit advantage for the extra time that you are in the market and your competitor is not. The earlier and faster you are in the market, the more orders and market share you enjoy. The ability to deliver a product faster also can make or break a sale. If two competitive products appear to be equal and one is immediately available and the other will be available in a week, which would you choose? Supply Chain Management is all about moving goods more quickly to their destination in a strategic and tactical manner. Supply Chain Management Tomorrow: The future for Supply Chain Management looks very bright. Two major trends are benefiting Supply Chain Management operations- Customer service focus and  Information technology. Successful organisations must excel in both of these areas, the fundamental objective being to “ADD VALUE.” Which Companies Impress You When You Think of Effective SCM in India?...
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Basic Trends in HRD

Basic Trends in HRD
Basic Trends in HRD – #Human Resource Development The basic motive of HRD would be to develop an enduring and healthy #work culture. It should also take into its fold the #training and developmental aspects of the workforce that forms the significant segment of the organization. It is a means to improve the overall organizational effectiveness but not an end in itself. HRD Philosophy: The philosophy of an organization is understood through #policies and operations and not merely through its programmes. HRD policies, #plans and action must commence from business #strategy. The key to the success of HRD is undoubtedly good industrial relations enhanced by effective #employee participation and existence of good #collective bargaining machinery. A Source of Motivation: Though #man power planning, training and #appraisal seem to be the core activities of HRD, it must also be used as an instrument for changing the work culture and motivating the workforce. This considerably improves the network of communication resulting in a sea change or turn around in terms of employee participation and #commitment. Concept of HRD: The #business environment is dynamic and so are the demands of the market. It is but important to review the organization structure to meet these demands of the changed environment. To establish and endure a #productive work culture to bring about improvements in organizational as well as technological disciplines. To train and develop employees in new skills for new #technology advanced operations and effective #performance. To bring about progress in the motivational #climate of the organization To bring the systems and procedures in line to deliver the expected results To reinforce participative culture and safety systems To maintain peaceful industrial relations in the production environment To revamp man power planning in order to match the individuals with jobs to #optimize utilization of available skills. Changing Environment: The process of HRD is directly linked to OD to facilitate the development of an organization in totality. To restructure organization in terms of #physical resource, #monetary resource and technology, one has to first understand the changes happening and challenges existing in the immediate external environment. Some of them would be #Competitor Pressure #Globalization of markets Rising aspirations of people at large Governmental policies etc., How has HR used #social media? A relatively late-adaptor, HR has largely used social media in recruitment…and indeed how!!! – In 2010 in US, only 6% of companies were using social media for recruitment, now that has exploded to 89% – 82 of the Fortune 100 companies uses the corporate hiring solutions of #LinkedIn – About 21% of working professionals are looking for a job – social media helps companies tap into the other 79% as well. Bullhorn’s 2012 Social Recruiting Activity Report says:“A #Twitter follower is almost 3 times more likely to apply to a job posting than a LinkedIn connection and 8 times more likely to apply than a #Facebook friend.” Human Resources professionals understand that social media ishere to stay…That’s the easy answer!!!The challenge is integrating use of a cohesive, relevant andeffective social media strategy aligned to the overall HR & business strategy of the organization. Information Courtesy – by National HRD...
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Attitude

Attitude
Attitude and Job Satisfaction What is attitude? Attitudes are evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people or events –Stephen Robbin. They also represent an ‘affective orientation towards an object.’ It simply means what one feels and thinks about something. Elements of attitude: Cognitive components – opinion or belief Affective components – emotion or feeling Behavioral components – intention to behave The interaction of these three components determines the way in which an individual develops an attitude towards something. Sources: Society Friends Teachers Family Members It also forms on the basis of the level of admiration we have over an object or persons. People also try to imitate others and attitudes are gradually formed on that basis also. In some attitudes formed are less stable, in some they even dominate the whole life. Types: Organizational behavior uses the concept of attitudes in relation to nature of the job and its influence on the performance of the persons. Accordingly, Job Satisfaction Job Involvement and Organizational Commitment, are the three kinds of attitude a person could have with respect his / her job or organization. Job Satisfaction: In “Job Satisfaction “, Stephen P. Robbins writes about five factors which make a person satisfied with his or her job. These factors are Mentally challenging work Equitable rewards Supportive working conditions Supportive colleagues and Personality-job fit. Cranny, Smith and Stone define job satisfaction as employees’ emotional state concerning the job, considering what they anticipated and what they actually got out of it. In fact, an employee with low expectations can be more satisfied with a certain job than someone who has high expectations. If one’s expectations are met or surpassed by the job, then one is happy and satisfied with the job. Job Involvement: Job involvement has been defined as an individual’s psychological identification or commitment to his / her job. As such individuals who display high involvement in their jobs consider their work to be a very important part of their lives- In other words for highly involved individuals performing well on the job is important for their self esteem. Organizational Commitment: Three important elements of a committed individual would be Identification with the organization’s goals and/or mission Long-term membership in the organization and intention to remain with the organization, often termed loyalty High levels of extra role behavior- behavior beyond required performance- Often denoted to as citizenship behavior or pro-social behavior. Cognitive Dissonance Theory: Leon Festinger developed this theory which explains the relationship between attitude and behavior. It refers to”any incompatibility that an individual might perceive between two or more of his or her attitudes, or between his or her behavior and attitudes.” Attitude Surveys: This is a tool that helps to collect information about the levels of attitude among the people. In most companies these kinds of surveys are conducted with the help of different rating scales like Likert scale offering five or seven alternative choices for each of the statement developed for attitude measurement. Summary: Research conducted on attitude and job satisfaction in Indian workers has made clear certain points as given below: Attitude is positively correlated with efficiency Absenteeism will bring down satisfaction levels Unions, negatively affect the employee attitude and job satisfaction Attitude researches and surveys will improve...
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Conflict Management Strategies

Conflict Management Strategies
Conflict Management – Conflict is a Part of Organizational Life Managers need to be alert to the presence of conflicts. Their focus should be oriented towards the goals to be accomplished. If there is a conflict, they should aim to resolve it smoothly by not over-reacting to the situation. They should take the help of persons who can best settle the issue, be ready to bargain and not issue orders. Their concentration should be on the problem and not on persons. True to the saying – Am I not destroying my enemies when I make friends of them?- President Abraham Lincoln Conflicts are Functional and Healthy: Conflicts in organisations are generally considered to be dysfunctional. On the contrary, many top executives of big companies view conflicts, as a means, to sufficiently analyse a problem and postpone decision making until all critical aspects of an issue are evaluated properly. Conflicts may occur within the individual, between individuals, between the individual and the group or between groups. There are many potential sources of conflict in today’s corporate organisations. The complex inter personal relationships and high degree of interdependence causes friction. Difference of Opinion: When many people must work together, conflict is inevitable, as it is human nature to clash and complain. Conflict is the personal divergence of interests between groups or individuals. The need to share scarce resources, difference in goals between organisational units, difference in values, attitudes and perception, ambiguously defined work responsibilities are some of the major sources of conflict. Functional Conflicts: Functional conflicts support the goals of a group, improve its performance and are constructive in nature. Dysfunctional conflicts hinder the performance of a group and are destructive in nature. It has not been precisely defined, as to what criterion demarcates functional from the dysfunctional. It is only the group’s performance and the delivered result or outcome that determines the nature of the conflict. Conflicts, irrespective of their type can bring these benefits to the firm: Bring hidden issues to the surface. Encourage creativity and innovation. Improves communication and make changes more acceptable. Increases group cohesion. Strategies to Resolve Conflicts: So, what kind of strategy do you think best suits in resolving conflicts? Avoiding or smoothing conflicts may be a temporary measure, only to bounce back in full force. Forcing might create undesirable consequences. The only option left is to confront the situation, face-to-face meeting of the conflicting parties for the purpose of identifying the problem and resolving it through an open discussion. Make Structural Changes to Lessen Conflicts:  By making structural changes, conflicts can be managed. The objectives of a group are modified and then integrated to suit the purpose. Also changes in the structure of the organization, that is, clarification of authority-responsibility relationship, improving the working atmosphere, ambience and work locations help in resolving conflicts. Proper Communication: Lack of proper communication, ego clashes between the people in line and staff positions, a superior’s autocratic leadership style, differing educational backgrounds, lack of co-ordination between inter-departments are all rich sources of conflict. These can be resolved with the right kind of attitudinal approach and an open mind from the management’s...
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Integrated Organizational Development

Integrated Organizational Development
Integrated Organizational Development Organizational Development : in short OD, is a systematic, integrated and planned approach to improving enterprise effectiveness. Corporate firms can achieve success only when the available #resources are put to optimal use. Optimisation implies, deriving the best out of the limited or scarce resources. A firm is comprised of many departments, all of which compete for the same kind of resources and it becomes a tough proposition for the #management to allocate the resources suitably to different cost and #responsibility centers. The point is, changing needs of an organization has to be keenly observed by the management and if it senses a need for organizational development in any one of the disciplines, it should immediately employ appropriate #interventions to improve the #performance and #productivity. Culture – The Fundamental Aspect: Organizational development involves a paradigm shift in its culture, which is the fundamental aspect. It does not just mean finding solutions to problems. It is a process of managing change in an organization, resulting in behavioral changes in #employees for the good of the organization. Firms adopt different interventions to bring in changes in the behavior of employees through learning. The aim of introducing interventions would be to meet the short term and long term #objectives of the firm in an integrated fashion. Only when the employees are suitably appraised about the objectives and trained accordingly, their mindset gets tuned in to perform as per the expected standards. Intervention Techniques: Intervention techniques focus on shifting the individual’s focus from “me” to “us.” Before delving into the types of interventions, one might wonder why an organization needs to incorporate such interventions at the first place. The reasons may be attributed to the following: Some kinds of problems keep recurring to the surface. Even after solving a particular problem, another one of similar nature erupts. Productivity improvement techniques are not effective. Any amount of effort fails to yield the desired result. Employee morale is low and the top management is unable to pinpoint any particular reason for the undesired development. How to Overcome #Resistance from Employees’ End? Intervention techniques encourage employees to come out with suggestions and take part in decision making as well for the betterment of the organization. Though initially there might be a resistance to change, as it is natural for humans to resist change, gradually the workforce understands the importance of initializing the change that might have a direct bearing on them and their working environment. A holistic change is what is needed for an organization to rise as a whole to greater heights. #Group Training: Group training is a vehicle for individual change. It improves the listening skills, empathy, capability of being sensitive to fellow workers’ needs, interpersonal skills, and desired behavior in a social setup etc., Trainees selects the problem issues that are of interest to them, the setting being informal and unstructured and most interestingly there is no external force to structure the discussion. But it may be noted that the trainer interferes in extreme cases where the discussions turns out to be #counterproductive and destructive. #Survey Feedback: Survey feedback is another kind of intervention that gathers data from employees at different levels regarding the problem issues, through questionnaires and the feedback of the survey is analyzed by the top management to find the loopholes or bottlenecks hindering the development. This has been a popular organization development technique since time immemorial and still followed suit. These programs are useful in improving the #quality of work life and employee productivity. Analysis of the effectiveness of intervention programmes and evolving right research designs to measure the variables before and after the change, shall reveal the...
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