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Transformational Leadership

Transformational Leadership
Transformational Leadership What is Transformational Leadership: a leadership approach that causes change in individuals and social systems. Humans generally prefer to have a serene life without much hitches or hurdles in the way. Even if they are to witness a problem situation, they tend to pull themselves away from the scene of action to avoid consequences that may lead to complications at a later date. Very few are bestowed with qualities that make them appear exceptional to the eyes of ordinary men and women. Such people bring wonderful transformations in the lives of people, who willingly follow the leader and support the cause. Need for Transformational Leaders: In business environment, there has always been this debate, whether transformational leaders show success! But it has to be kept in mind that each component of transformational leadership has relevance for improving the decision-making process. In comparison, individually considerate leaders make sure that all parties to the problem are heard. Intellectually stimulating leaders reformulate with followers, colleagues, or superiors into more familiar and concrete terms, what may have begun as fuzzy. Inspirational leaders increase confidence and raise aspiration levels, that the problem can be solved once its causes have been determined. Decision-Making Styles: Leaders with idealized influence show their concern about the problem and the need for its solution. The common thread that emerges from the discussion on decision-making is that decision making styles may be primarily viewed as being based on logic or feeling and instincts. The rational and intuitive decision-making styles are generally considered in conjunction since they represent two ends of a continuum as observed through most studies. While making decisions, transformational leaders are more likely to Be proactive to incipient problems, anticipating the emergence of problems more frequently and farther in advance. Incremental, taking small steps toward problem solving without waiting for a guarantee of complete success. Willing to look at a problem in a larger context and longer time frame. Encouraging of search and choice that take into account the wider context of the larger organization and outside environment rather than limiting the search to the immediate neighborhood of the problem. Quick to react to emergent problems. Seeking information informally for making their decisions rather than prescribed by organizational rules. Practicing walk-around management to promote the upward flow of communication and information. Making decisions involving higher payoffs at higher risks rather than decisions that favor exploitation and achieve lower payoffs at lower risks. Willing to take failure in their stride. Rationale in Making Decisions: The rational style of making decisions is deliberate, analytical, and logical assessing the long-term effects of decisions and having a strong fact-based orientation. The intuitive style is feeling-oriented and based on internal ordering of information. Such decisions are made quickly. The dependent style is characterized by use of support from others while delay and denial characterize the avoidance style. The spontaneous style displays a strong sense of immediacy and an interest in getting through the decision-making process as quickly as possible. A transformational leader would more likely to make decisions rationally after considering carefully all the facts and information and spending a considerable time over the decision-making process. Transformational leadership will be positively related to rational, spontaneous and dependent decision-making styles, and will be negatively related to intuitive and avoidance decision making. The interaction effect of rational and dependent decision making styles on transformational leadership will be...
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Game Theory

Game Theory
Game theory and strategy What is Game Theory: Set of concepts designed for decision making in situations of competition and conflict under specified rules. The prisoner’s dilemma: The prisoner’s dilemma is a canonical example of a game, analyzed in game theory that explains why two individuals might not cooperate, even if it appears that it is in their best interest to do so; Albert W. Tucker formalized the game with prison sentence payoffs and gave it the “prisoner’s dilemma” name. To solve many practical problems that are encountered in economic, military or other disciplines, one has to deal with situations in which there are two or more conflicting parties striving for the same objective and the outcome of each action of one party depends solely on the opposite parties choice of a course of action. As we all know only one horse can win the race ultimately and the other parties only can prolong the race or see to that they make every possible move to delay the opponent’s success.  So, what’s this game theory all about? This is a special mathematical method that was evolved mainly to analyze conflict situations where the number of competitors is finite, each participant has a definite set of actions to choose and there is a conflict of interest between the competitors. So it helped the participants to reach a decision that would put them in the winning post. This theory has spilled its implications on business situations where success is the motto and conflict and competition the order of the day. Only the best among the best survive. Darwin’s theory, “Survival of the fittest” applies not only to biological organisms but also to business organizations which are also abuzz with activity. Chance Moves: Games like chess, checkers are played according to a definite set of rules laid down and these game patterns has inspired business persons to introduce strategies in business, where the concentration is mainly focused on the chance moves that defeats the opponent. Big business corporates mainly concentrate on the strengths and weaknesses of their competitors to have an edge over them. A real game is controlled and regulated by the statutory rules to be followed but a business game involves lot of killer instincts and intuitions combined with rational thinking and logic. Optimal Strategy: The first party always puts himself in the shoes of the other party and tries to perceive how the other party would react in a particular situation. Although the aim is to win, choosing the optimal strategy is what matters. It will at least keep you in bay. Precise solutions can be arrived at if you plan your game fittingly. The anticipation and thrill that is involved in a strategic game is matchless.  We witness a lot of firms imitating what the leader of the market does. The risk is borne solely by the firm introducing the change and the firm takes the major share of profit as it is the pioneer and if it loses the next strategic move is planned for. For a company with sound financial position, the chance move is worth giving a try, head or tail doesn’t matter. The stalkers are benefited by the waiting period during which they come to know of the pros and cons of the strategy employed by the leader. Games are played in the true spirit of sportsmanship, but a business faces cut throat competition. There is no space for any courtesy or liberal approach. If you are quick enough to pick the pulse of the people by gauging their preferences, analyzing the market conditions and employing timely strategies you will at least survive in...
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