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What is Organizational Development

What is Organizational Development
Organizational Development Training and development is an important aspect of human resource development. However the traditional methods and approach of T&D has its own limitations in that the focus is on individual development and behavior modification. This has seldom produced organizational development and hence in 1960’s an integrated approach called the ‘OD’ or organizational development was developed. OD is the systematic application of behavioral science knowledge for the purpose of improving productivity, efficiency, effectiveness and overall health of the total organization. The applied interventions attempt to modify the beliefs, assumptions, values, attitudes and standards of both the individuals and groups thereby transforming the organizational culture for the betterment of system as a whole.   FEATURES OF ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT: HUMANISM: The focus is on the employees, their attitude and inter-personal relationships. An organization is a network of people whose emotions, outlook and cohesiveness are more important than monetary and other physical aspects because it is they who take the organization to the next higher level.  This is made possible by open communication, free and frank discussions of problems with employees by the managers, inter-personal trust and above all, sense of belongingness, comradeship and team spirit. PROBLEM-SOLVING NATURE: The purpose of an OD intervention is to solve a problem. The employees themselves are given the opportunity to identify the problem by Survey Feedback and find a suitable solution through analysis. This is a cyclic process and also called as “Action Research”. SYSTEMS APPROACH: OD is concerned with not the structure or persons per se, but with the interplay of structure and persons. LEARNING THROUGH PARTICIPATION: The participants of the learning process are none other than the employees. They unlearn old things and learn new things by identifying, analyzing and finding the right solution to the bottlenecks. TOP MANAGEMENT SUPPORT AND INVOLVEMENT: OD intervention is successful only when top management involvement is full-fledged and ensures participation from all levels of managers and all departments in such an exercise. MULTIPLE INTERVENTIONS: Intervention takes place at various levels, individual as well as group and the purpose is molding desirable work culture and leadership styles suitable for the organization. ROLE OF CONSULTANT: Employing an external consultant will be more appropriate as he is less susceptible to influences and more objective. He acts as the change agent facilitating co-ordination and stimulation. CONTINGENCY PLANS: Alternate plans are also devised if in case the original plan fails; the idea is one that of trial and error, hence the need for contingency plans and approach to OD problem. RENSIS LIKERT’S OD FRAMEWORK: Rensis Likert’s 4 system OD framework aims at moving towards truly participative system. Care and caution must be adhered to steer the system gradually from where the organization now works. He also introduced diagnostic analysis to find what causes the current problem. His three part diagnostic analysis includes: A. OUTPUT CAUSES: Low productivity, absenteeism, declining profit B. INTERVENING CAUSES: Organization structure, control, policy and leadership C. ROOT CAUSES: Attitude, motivation level, empowerment and organization culture OD CULTURE: “The OD paradigm values human and organizational growth, collaborative and participative processes and a spirit of enquiry.” Brown and Covey have made some attempts to identify OD values from the following: Norms and Values: Respect for people: People are the most important of all resources. So giving due respect and importance to people induces the creativity and innovation in them. Trust and Support: Trust, openness and supportive climate improve organization culture and empowerment. Power Equalization: This emphasizes hierarchical authority, control and centralization. Confrontation: Do not hide problem under the carpet; instead face them squarely how-ever unpleasant they may be. Participation: Involving people in decision-making will resolve problem situations in a jiffy THE ASSUMPTIONS AND BELIEFS OF OD: On Individuals: 1....
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Evolution of Management Theory-Part 1

Evolution of Management Theory-Part 1
Evolution of Management Theory-Part 1 It all began with ADAM SMITH (1776), the Scottish economist when he lashed out against the abuses of monopoly and mercantilism. He highlighted that productivity was a result of specialization, division of work and exchange. We witness the evidence of managerial practices right from the Sumerian age as early as 5000 B.C., from their written records to administer the governmental  and commercial activities. Koutilys’a ARTHASASTHRA and Thiruvalluvar’s THIRUKKURAL  have spelt out management principles in a coherent way that suits any time period. MILESTONES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF MANAGEMENT THOUGHT: 5000 B.C SUMERIANS RECORD KEEPING 4000 B.C EGYPTIANS PLANNING,ORGANISING AND CONTROLLING 500 B.C GREEKS SPECIALISATION 1800 ELI WHITNEY MASS PRODUCTION MADE POSSIBLE 1822 CHARLES BABBAGE PRODUCED DIFFERENCE MACHINE,A FORERUNNER OF TODAY’S COMPUTER 1911 F.W.TAYLOR SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT 1916 HENRI FAYOL MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS 1943 ABRAHAM MASLOW MOTIVATION MODEL 1954 PETER DRUCKER POPULARISED MBO-MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES 1961 RENSIS LIKERT CONTINGENCY LEADERSHIP PRE-SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT SCHOOL Management is as old as civilization and it is a separate entity by itself. The full boom of management was witnessed  with the advent of INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION in Europe in the late 18th century. There was mass exodus of people to urban cities in search of jobs due to mechanisation and there arose a necessity to manage people. Initially they were treated as slaves by the owners but later the link factor called “Managers” came into the picture to negotiate and solve issues between the union and management. Important contributors to the management theories Robert Owen: He introduced a system of open rating for workers’ work on a daily basis. He insisted that improving the lives of the working individuals through labor welfare measures was the only way to increase productivity. Charles Babbage: He was a visionary who could foresee scientific management. His difference engine or the modern day computer has made people’s lives easy and has replaced manual operations with machines. Captain Henry Metcalfe: He formed the Bureau of Personal Administration in New York Introduced time cards and material cards Project Management Courses Online Fredrick Winslow Taylor: Founder of scientific management and is called the “Father of scientific management.” He emphasized on the need for management planning and standardization of tools and materials, the former to gauge the capability of men and machine and the latter to save time  and increase productivity. He was one of the founders of “Time  and Motion study.” His theory was based on the following assumptions: · Production planning and control is the main function of an organization · Insisted on functional foremanship · Time study as the basis for arriving standard time · Standardisation of all tools and parts · The use of ‘slide-rules’ and similar time saving implements · Inroduced ‘time-cards’ for workmen · The ‘differential rate system of wages Henry Gantt: He proposed the Gantt Chart, a visual method to compare production output with time it took to complete a task. This is considered to be a forerunner of today’s PERT-PROGRAMME EVALUATION and REVIEW TECHNIQUE). He also developed · Work quota systems · Bonus systems for workers or managers  Objectives of Scientific Management · To ensure continuous employment opportunities for the work force · To gauge market tendencies · To render workers a high standard of living; this motivates them to contribute more · To increase the income of the workers · To assure a socially agreeable condition of working environment · Proper selection, training, assignment, transfer and promotion of workers · To develop self-confidence and self-respect among workers through opportunity and participation · To promote justice through elimination of discrimination in wage-rates · To eliminate causes of friction and to promote understanding, tolerance and the spirit of team-work-Espirit de...
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