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The Need of Math in Management

The Need of Math in Management
Operations Research-Emphasizing the need of Math in Management Business is all about “demand versus supply”. And as is always the case, industries operate in a tight situation, with limited resources and heavy demand, trying to make the ends meet. The production of required quantity with the available resources needs an approach that is quantitative and logical as well. This can be obtained by weighing the odds and choosing the right kind of decision that suits your business plan, be it production, distribution, marketing, selling or any business situation, where there is a need to compare and contrast between alternating decisions, to arrive at an optimal solution. High end mathematical concepts in Operations: Operations research comes into the picture in such situations, wherein, high end mathematical concepts and models are applied to problem situations, to first define the problem and then extract the best possible solution by quantifying the resources available. Quantitative data is then converted into linear equations to maximize the productivity and profit. Profit maximization is generally aimed by most of the firms that operate with limited potential and operations research helps to achieve this through optimal use of the available resources. Application of Scientific Methods: The emphasis is on application of scientific methods, use of quantitative data, goals and objectives and determination of the best means to reach them. Once the data is collected, it is carefully evaluated and the relationship among data is established, which helps in defining the problems and goals. The problem is represented logically to decide the course of action. Say, for example, Linear Programming represents each and every problem situation in the form of a linear equation and tries to allocate resources in an optimal fashion. Alternate decisions are evaluated and the decision that yields the best result in terms of productivity and profit is considered. Measure of Effectiveness: How do you measure profit? The measure of effectiveness will be determining the rate of return on investment, and every possible solution can be weighed against this measure. Theories of probability are also used to predict the success rate of the combinations of variables executed in different ways. But one has to understand that only some variables are controllable and others are not. Say, if the economy experiences inflation or recession, your predictions will undergo a drastic review in purview of the fluctuations in the economy. Similarly availability of labor is always a constraint, either labor is not available or they demand more pay. Simplex Methods: Since voluminous data is involved, computers with multi processors are used to manipulate the data. Mathematical tools like simplex methods, integer programming, graphical methods, transportation and assignment techniques, simulations, game theory and queuing theory can be very well applied to solve complex problem situations with ease. Today’s business world demands more sophistication in terms of technical updations. Evolution of Opeartions Research Techniques: Operations Research dates back to the Second World War period, and the accelerated growth of this discipline in recent years can be attributed to the fact that, researchers have found this useful in solving economic and political problems too. At the same time, critics point out that, application of operations research proves advantageous only to those people who are accustomed to the usage of rapid computing machines and understand the complex mathematical formulae and relationships. Note: Energy: The oil industry was one of the earlier users of operations research techniques to help manage their refinery processes, and operations research technologies are heavily used by all the major oil companies. Manufacturing: Manufacturing organizations continue to use operations research to optimize factory operations. Transportation: Operations researchers execute logistics for air traffic control, trucking, and railroads. Real-time dispatching and delivery truck...
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Integrated Organizational Development

Integrated Organizational Development
Integrated Organizational Development Organizational Development : in short OD, is a systematic, integrated and planned approach to improving enterprise effectiveness. Corporate firms can achieve success only when the available #resources are put to optimal use. Optimisation implies, deriving the best out of the limited or scarce resources. A firm is comprised of many departments, all of which compete for the same kind of resources and it becomes a tough proposition for the #management to allocate the resources suitably to different cost and #responsibility centers. The point is, changing needs of an organization has to be keenly observed by the management and if it senses a need for organizational development in any one of the disciplines, it should immediately employ appropriate #interventions to improve the #performance and #productivity. Culture – The Fundamental Aspect: Organizational development involves a paradigm shift in its culture, which is the fundamental aspect. It does not just mean finding solutions to problems. It is a process of managing change in an organization, resulting in behavioral changes in #employees for the good of the organization. Firms adopt different interventions to bring in changes in the behavior of employees through learning. The aim of introducing interventions would be to meet the short term and long term #objectives of the firm in an integrated fashion. Only when the employees are suitably appraised about the objectives and trained accordingly, their mindset gets tuned in to perform as per the expected standards. Intervention Techniques: Intervention techniques focus on shifting the individual’s focus from “me” to “us.” Before delving into the types of interventions, one might wonder why an organization needs to incorporate such interventions at the first place. The reasons may be attributed to the following: Some kinds of problems keep recurring to the surface. Even after solving a particular problem, another one of similar nature erupts. Productivity improvement techniques are not effective. Any amount of effort fails to yield the desired result. Employee morale is low and the top management is unable to pinpoint any particular reason for the undesired development. How to Overcome #Resistance from Employees’ End? Intervention techniques encourage employees to come out with suggestions and take part in decision making as well for the betterment of the organization. Though initially there might be a resistance to change, as it is natural for humans to resist change, gradually the workforce understands the importance of initializing the change that might have a direct bearing on them and their working environment. A holistic change is what is needed for an organization to rise as a whole to greater heights. #Group Training: Group training is a vehicle for individual change. It improves the listening skills, empathy, capability of being sensitive to fellow workers’ needs, interpersonal skills, and desired behavior in a social setup etc., Trainees selects the problem issues that are of interest to them, the setting being informal and unstructured and most interestingly there is no external force to structure the discussion. But it may be noted that the trainer interferes in extreme cases where the discussions turns out to be #counterproductive and destructive. #Survey Feedback: Survey feedback is another kind of intervention that gathers data from employees at different levels regarding the problem issues, through questionnaires and the feedback of the survey is analyzed by the top management to find the loopholes or bottlenecks hindering the development. This has been a popular organization development technique since time immemorial and still followed suit. These programs are useful in improving the #quality of work life and employee productivity. Analysis of the effectiveness of intervention programmes and evolving right research designs to measure the variables before and after the change, shall reveal the...
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Growth Strategies in Business

Growth Strategies in Business
GROWTH STRATEGIES  What are Growth Strategies : The means by which an organization plans to achieve its objective to grow in volume and turnover. The dynamic business environment calls for periodical changes in the business definitions, in terms of customer groups, customer functions and alternative technologies to broaden their scope for expansion. Udemy Marketing Strategies: Increase Enrollment – Unofficial Begin building your student base with these 6 marketing strategies to increase your ranking on Udemy. Growth can never be achieved by a business enterprise, if there is no proper planning for diversification of its business activities across a broad spectrum. Expansion strategies are followed when an organization aims at high growth, by improving its overall performance.  Expansion Strategy: Expansion strategies have a profound impact on the internal configuration as well as internal functioning of an organization. The business firms bear the risk of moving in an entirely new direction, where there is an equal chance for failure as that of success. If only a manufacturer plans to diversify or expand in a field that complements his present business activity, does it make any sense. What is the fun in venturing into a business activity about which you have no knowledge or scope? Expansion through concentration: This involves investment of resources in a product line for an identified market with the help of proven technology. A firm may attempt to intensify its focus on existing markets through market penetration strategies. Or new users may be targeted for existing products or alternatively it may introduce new products in existing markets by concentrating on product development. Concentration policy relies on the principle of “A known devil is far better than an unknown angel.” It is a very difficult task for firms to capture new markets or to gain acceptance for new products in existing markets. Expansion through integration: A company attempts to widen the scope of its business activities in such a manner that it results in serving the same set of customers. The alternative technology dimension of the business definition undergoes a radical change. Firms try to move up or down in the value chain to meet the demands of the customers by integrating adjacent activities. Expansion through co-operation: It may include mergers, takeovers, joint ventures and strategic alliances. Two firms try to combine their resources, capabilities and core competencies to pursue mutual interests to develop, manufacture or distribute goods and services. Expansion through internationalization: International strategies are formulated in the wake of globalization where most of the developing countries have liberalized their economic policies facilitating foreign direct investments, generating foreign exchange. Many multinational and transnational companies are setting up their operations in developing countries to factorise the economies of scale and to enjoy the advantages of cheap labor and availability of resources. Stability Strategy: Many firms go for stability strategies that are devoid of any risks. They are quite contented with the modest profit gained from the present business activity and try to maintain the same level of performance, until and unless there is a pressure from the market in the form of competition. Only few firms have that adventurous attitude to take risks in order to have a sustainable competitive...
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Strategies to Tide Over Competition

Strategies to Tide Over Competition
Strategies to Tide Over Competition Distinctive Competence: is nothing but a set of unique capabilities that certain firms possess allowing them to make inroads into preferred markets and to gain advantage over the competition. Human brain is the greatest think tank and it evolves new methodologies of business management from time to time in order to sustain as well as win the race. Planning is the key factor that decides the rise or downfall of a business empire. “Where we are?” and “Where we want to be in the next few years?” is how every business leader’s basic thought process must be, without which he cannot proceed further in the competitive corporate environment. If we call planning as the basement of a building, then it should be very precise, clear cut and robust so that the business empire built on this basement will never collapse and it will also serve as a role-model for everyone who aspires to set his foot in the corporate business world. At the corporate level, strategic planning helps to establish the Purpose Mission and Objective for the firm as a whole and “outlines the overall plan to attain them.” Strategy is nothing but a unique set of action plan that will distinguish you from your competitors and make you have an edge over them. Likewise strategic planning is nothing but thinking out of the box to” CREATE YOUR OWN NICHE MARKET” in the business environment. STRATEGIC COMPETENCE takes you to the top of the ladder; but to withhold your position you need to formulate innovative ideas to tide over the challenges in the market. Strategic planning facilitates this process by giving you time frame to complete your short term objectives and long term goals.   Infographic Courtesy: The 4 key sources to seek insights for marketing planning Planning for SBU’s: Business level planning is done for the enterprise’s STRATEGIC BUSINESS UNITS or SBU’S. These are individual” cash cows” that makes your business noteworthy and also brings in constant revenue to run your other units successfully even in periods of recession or if a particular product is not that successful as you might have expected it to be. I shall compare a business plan to a travel plan. Both involve planning, resources, capital, marketing and so on. . . Both have starting points but a business plan and its objectives never end and you can never come back to the starting point in a business as that of a travel, because you only expand and grow to greater heights in a business provided your plan is pucca. And also the strategy seeks the integration and control of marketing, finance, production and human resources at the functional level. Strategic Plans at different functional levels: Strategic plans at different levels must be integrated to ensure that they work in tandem and reinforce each other, thereby contributing to the corporate level strategy adopted for the entire corporate group. I would call strategic planning as” INTELLIGENCE DESIGN CHOICE ACTIVITY “adopted by a corporate and it has become an inevitable feature in the directory of the business world....
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Spirituality and Management

Spirituality and Management
MANAGEMENT AND SPIRITUALITY The purpose of correlating spirituality and management might present a weird picture to some. Research of the old Hindu scriptures, epics and Vedas disclose the secrets of management etiquettes coated with spiritual sugar which serves as a road map for us to cherish and follow. As an ardent follower of the BHAGAVAT GITA, THE UNIVERSAL BOOK OF SPIRITUAL SCIENCE, it was really amazing for me to know that the core principles of management have already been defined and dealt with that were formulated at a later date by MANAGEMENT GURUS like PETER DRUCKER, HENRY FAYOL, C. K. PRAHALAD and the like. Optimal Business Decisions using Excel Solver – Make smarter business decisions using this amazing Excel Tool. I would like to present four qualities that struck me while I was comparing and contemplating. PERCEPTION AND UNDERSTANDING THE INNER SELF SELF MOTIVATION AND SELF TRANSCENDENCE DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES LEADERSHIP The Leader and the Manager: The LEADER IS BEING FOLLOWED willingly, but a manager has to command individuals in order to adhere to his instructions. So, being a good leader starts from soul searching or understanding the nature of one’s inner self. SELF CONCEPTION gives a different dimension to approach problems. Spiritual experiences induce clarity in thinking that leads to ethical decision making. The spiritual experiences of Arjuna, one of the PANCHA PANDAVAS with LORD KRISHNA made him stronger (at will) and sharper (right perception). Decision Making: “I am the strength of those who are devoid of personal desire and attachment. O Arjuna, I am the legitimate desire in those, who are not opposed to righteousness, “says Lord Sri Krishna. At the war front, Arjuna the GREAT WARRIOR is not sure whether to fight against his own kith and kin. The inspiring words of Krishna motivated him to come out from the state of INERTIA and enter RIGHTEOUS ACTION. It is a testimony of what philosophers call the transcendence from alienation to self confidence to reach ethical decision making. One can never forego his duty or responsibility, be it his personal life or in the management arena. EFFECTIVENESS IS DOING THE RIGHT THINGS EFFICIENCY IS DOING THINGS RIGHT Forming a VISION, planning the right Strategies, pooling the resources, hiring right people for the right job, setting goals and objectives, reviewing by MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES, MANAGEMENT BY EXCEPTION, rewards and recognition, all have been dealt with a masterly excellence in MAHABARATHA which talks about the GURUKSHETRA WAR between the PANDAVAS and KAURAVAS or to simply put it, between THE GOOD AND THE EVIL. “The Supreme Lord is situated in everyone’s heart, O Arjuna, and is directing the wanderings of all living entities, who are seated as on a machine, made of the material energy.”Mind can make you LIBERATED OR BONDED that depends upon your WILL to master it or be a slave. Controlling your mind in turn controls your actions and thought process that leads to well augured efforts that proves fruitful to the human race. Leaders are born and not made goes the saying. But if you are able to be THE MASTER OF YOUR MIND, you are a leader made. Management Lessons from THE BHAGAVAT GITA   Applicable to both western and Indian school of management, THE BHAGAVAT GITA deals with problems at the GRASS ROOT LEVEL relating to THE HUMAN PSYCHE. It enlightens us on all managerial techniques, goading us towards a serene atmosphere and state of affairs in place of the conflicts, stress, and lack of co-ordination, common in most of the enterprises world wide. “Do your duty perfectly, and the results will follow suit”, is the crux of GITA. How many of us can transform ourselves into such...
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