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Meaning and Definition of Finance

Meaning and Definition of Finance
Meaning and Definition of Finance Meaning of Finance The science that describes the management, creation and study of money, banking, credit, investments, assets and liabilities. The financial systems include the public, private and government spaces, and the study of finance and financial instruments, which can relate to countless assets and liabilities. Finance is divided into three distinct categories: public finance, corporate finance and personal finance, all three consisting of  many sub-categories. The one word which can easily substitute finance is “exchange.” Finance is nothing but an exchange of available resources. Finance is not restricted only to the exchange and/or management of money. A barter trading system is also a type of finance. Thus, we can say, Finance is an art of managing various available resources like money, assets, investments, securities, etc. Some Definitions of Finance The concept of finance includes capital, funds, money, and amount. But each word has its unique meaning. Studying and understanding the concept of finance becomes an important part of the business concern. Definition of Business Finance According to the Wheeler, “Business finance is that business activity which concerns with the acquisition and conversation of capital funds in meeting financial needs and overall objectives of a business enterprise”. According to the Guthumann and Dougall, “Business finance can broadly be defined as the activity concerned with planning, raising, controlling, administering of the funds used in the business”. In the words of Parhter and Wert, “Business finance deals primarily with raising, administering and disbursing funds by privately owned business units operating in non-financial fields of industry”. The term finance comes from the Latin “finis” which means end or finish . It is a term whose implications affect both individuals and businesses, organizations and states it has to do with obtaining and using or money management – Ivan Thompson According to Bodie and Merton, finance is the “study how scarce resources are allocated over time”. Corporate Finance Corporate finance is concerned with budgeting, financial forecasting, cash management, credit administration, investment analysis and fund procurement of the business concern and the business concern needs to adopt modern technology and application suitable to the global environment.   Corporate finance is the area of finance dealing with the sources of funding and the capital structure of corporations and the actions that managers take to increase the value of the firm to the shareholders, as well as the tools and analysis used to allocate financial resources.   The financial activities related to running a corporation. A division or department that oversees the financial activities of a company. Corporate finance is primarily concerned with maximizing shareholder value through long-term and short-term financial planning and the implementation of various strategies. Everything from capital investment decisions to investment banking falls under the domain of corporate finance.   According to the Encyclopedia of Social Sciences, “Corporation finance deals with the financial problems of corporate enterprises. These problems include the financial aspects of the promotion of new enterprises and their administration during early development, the accounting problems connected with the distinction between capital and income, the administrative questions created by growth and expansion, and finally, the financial adjustments required for the bolstering up or rehabilitation of a corporation which has come into financial difficulties”. The core corporate finance principles can be stated as follows: The Investment Principle: It is better to invest in assets and projects that yield a return greater than the minimum acceptable hurdle rate. The hurdle rate should be higher for riskier projects and should reflect the financing mix used—owners funds (equity) or borrowed money (debt). Returns on projects should be evaluated  based on cash flows generated and the timing of these cash flows; they should also...
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Does your company have what it takes to be a leader-1

Does your company have what it takes to be a leader-1
What it takes to be a Leader What is #Corporate Social Responsibility? High performance is generally measured against key business imperatives including #competitive advantage, #sales, #talent management, #operational efficiency, #return on investment and profitability. It is no longer adequate for a corporation to revel in economic prosperity in isolation from those agents impacted by its actions. Today, a new element of leadership is making an intense difference in weighing  business performance: Corporate Social Responsibility. The late 1990s and the early 2000s saw an uptake in businesses giving proceeds or providing volunteers to causes related to their brands. Some called it “corporate social responsibility”; others called it “corporate #philanthropy” or “#corporate citizenship.” Regardless of its title, it was a way for business to increase visibility while raising funds for good. The spotlight is on both increasing the firm’s bottom line and being a good corporate citizen. Keeping abreast of global trends and remaining committed to financial obligations to deliver both private and public benefits have compelled organizations to restructure their frameworks, rules, and business models. Where does the roots of CSR lie? Although the #roots of CSR lie in altruistic activities (such as donations, charity, relief work, etc.) of corporations, globally, the concept of CSR has evolved and now embraces all allied concepts such as triple bottom line, corporate citizenship, philanthropy, #strategic philanthropy, #shared value, #corporate sustainability and business responsibility. You might be wondering what is “Triple bottom line?” (abbreviated as TBL or 3BL) – The term coined by John Elkington in 1994,  incorporates the notion of sustainability into business decisions. The TBL is an #accounting framework with three dimensions: social, environmental (or ecological) and financial. “A plethora of research points to a majority of stakeholders agreeing that CSR is a ‘must do’,” and  67% of consumers say they are more likely to buy products and services from a company if they know it supported good causes. Smart Corporations: As a key component in business #strategy and execution, CSR is playing a crucial role in helping organizations to be seen as leaders. Smart corporations are allocating increasing internal resources to CSR investments that include clear objectives and furnish measurable social outcomes. India is a country of multitude contradictions. On the one hand, it has grown to be one of the major economies in the world, and an increasingly important player in the emerging global order, on the other hand, it is still home to the largest number of people living in absolute poverty (even if the proportion of poor people has decreased) and the largest number of malnourished children. This is the sad state of uneven distribution of the benefits of growth which many believe, is the root cause of social unrest. Companies too have been the target of those disconcerted by this lop-sided development and as a result, their contributions to society are under severe scrutiny. Many companies have been astute to sense this development, and have responded proactively while others have done so only when advocated. What it takes to be a Leader-2...
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Corporate Investment Decisions

Corporate Investment Decisions
What forms the Basis for your Investment Decisions Profit seeking is the ultimate aim of corporate management and the finance manager acts as the anchor point of the management structure. He has to provide specific inputs into the decision-making process, with respect to profitability. Cost control: What are the Cost Centres? It is the finance manager’s responsibility to have an eagle’s eye on rising costs by continuously monitoring the cost centers of his organization. Production department where there is always a need for additional resources or inflow of funds, should be his first target of contol. Costs are incurred by each and every department of an organization,namely,the production,marketing,personnel and of course finance and accounting. It is a difficult task to control the rising costs. That is the reason why, big corporate companies go for annual budget formulation at the start of the year and reformulates the finance plan by comparing actual with the projected figures. This kind of evaluation helps the firm to fix responsibilities for various centers of operation. Resource Allocation A finance manager is the first person to recognize rising costs for supplies or production, and he can make immediate recommendations to the management to bring back costs under control. While cost control talks about allocating resources to different responsibility centers in the desired proportion, cost reduction focuses on conserving the resources. Cost reduction can be achieved through modifying product and process designs, cutting down throughput time, doubling labor productivity, mass customization, standardistion etc., Pricing: Price Fixation It is always a joint venture between marketing and finance departments when it comes to price fixation of products, product lines and services. Pricing decisions are important in that, they affect market demand and the company’s competitive stand in the market. Pricing strategies have to be evolved in the wake of existing competitor strategies and market preference. The demand forecast is the prerequisite factor of the production process and in-depth market analysis and understanding is inevitable on the part of the executives. Future Levels of Profit The finance manager is also responsible for charting out the future levels of profit, based on the relevant data available. He has to consider the current costs, likely increase in costs and likely changes in the ability of the firm to sell its products at the established selling prices. So, it becomes clear that, such market evaluation cannot be periodical, as the market is highly dynamic and has to be done in a day-to-day basis. Before a firm commences a project, its discounted future fund flow and expected profits must be ascertained which will serve as a basis for comparison. Risk versus Return: Investment decisions always are risky as the gestation period of invested funds is very long and not to return immediately. Further, the firm has to calculate the time period in which its initial investment can be recovered and the feasibility of the rate of return on its investment. Fund Management The finance manager is engaged in activities like, mobilization of funds, deployment of funds, and control over the use of funds and also he is to evaluate the risk return trade-off. Profit maximization is the fundamental objective of any organization and the finance manager plays a key role in restructuring the financial philosophy of a firm to take it to greater...
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