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Costing and Profitability

Costing and Profitability
Costing and Profitability Analysis Relationship between Cost of Production and Sales Volume: The cost of production and volume of sales are the inter-dependent determinants of profit. The analysis of cost behavior in relation to the changing volume of sales and its impact on profit is very important to determine the break even level of a firm. The level at which total revenue equals total costs, is said to be the break even level where there is no-profit or no-loss. Sales beyond break-even volume bring in profits. Generally production is preceded by the process of demand forecasting, to decide on the volume of production, the produce of which will be absorbed by the market. Pricing and promotions come at a later stage. Costing is done to predict the costs of production and resultant profits at various levels of activity. Download this comprehensive power-point presentation on Break-Even Analysis. Cost Volume Profit or CVP Analysis: CVP analysis or Cost-Volume-Profit analysis helps a firm to study the interrelationship between these three factors and their effect on clean profit. The process also includes an analysis about the external factors that affect the volume of production, such as market demand, competitor threat and internal factors such as availability of infrastructure, capital and labor force. This CVP analysis is a boon to the managers to locate the bottlenecks that hinder the productivity and find a way out, by adjusting either the levels of activity or controlling the cost.   Picture Courtesy : The Power of Break-Even Analysis Pricing: Pricing is the most important factor that makes your product competitive. The costs of production can be classified into fixed costs, variable costs and semi variable costs. Fixed costs remain constant and tend to be unaffected by the changes in volume of output; whereas variable costs vary directly with the volume of output and semi-variable as the name implies are partly fixed and partly variable. Cost accountants of the modern era fully support variable costing for the purpose of cost accounting, listing its merits as follows: Variable costing talks about contribution margin, which is the excess of sales over variable costs. If this is going to be high, sufficient enough to cover the fixed costs, then profit is assured for the firm. It is a key factor to determine the percentage of profit. Variable costing assigns only those costs to a product that varies directly with the changing levels of production, which is helpful in making a distinction of profit made from sales and those resulting from changes in production and inventory. Segregating the costs into fixed and variable is done for the purpose of providing information to reflect cost-volume-profit relationships and to facilitate management decision-making and control. Some applications of variable costing that facilitates management decision making: Profit planning: By increasing the volume of sales or decreasing the selling price of the product. Performance evaluation of profit centres:Like, sales division, marketing department, product line etc., Decide on product priorities: In view of market potential and profit potential Make or Buy Decisions: Depending on the production capacity and sales demand. Budgeting: Flexible budgeting and cost control are possible by variable costing technique and the striking feature is the treatment given to fixed costs, where it is treated as a period cost and not apportioned among all the departments and products that enable the firm to understand the movement of profits in the same direction as that of the sales. Although considered to be a controversial technique and weighed against the conventional methods of costing such as absorption costing, it is believed that it is to stay and exist as the next step in the evolutionary method of cost accounting....
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Factors Influencing Global Economy

Factors Influencing Global Economy
Factors That Influence Global Economy The industrial and business environment of developing countries has been subjected to a sea of changes owing to the economic reforms and policies in the light of globalization, privatization and liberalization. A long term economic vision is necessary for these countries to establish themselves in the global market which facilitates the process of becoming self sufficient in due course of time. Let me present you with a synopsis of how this change can happen and how countries are adapting themselves in lieu of the global economic boom. Multi Brand Retail Markets: Many multinational companies have acquired and are trying to acquire a major part of equity in multibrand retail markets of the host country and sometimes they opt for Joint ventures to factorize the economy of scale which also proves to be a win-win situation for both the parties. Developing countries have altered their economic views on foreign direct investment and are very liberal in their attitude in providing with the necessary licenses. The entry of multinational companies and their potential investment has even altered core sectors like power, oil and telecommunications. Moreover, the benefit of cheap labor, economic subsidies for the start of operations in economically backward regions lures foreign investors. Rush of Entrepreneurship: There is a rush of entrepreneurship in the developing countries, in the form of setting up of small scale industries, cottage industries for which liberal subsidies are provided by the governments to encourage the act of entrepreneurialism. Also people want to go for diversification, mergers and acquisitions in the wake of global competition. Capital Markets’ Role: Capital markets have gained new buoyancy. The rapid growth of stock market and its influence over the international economic scenario have made foreign brokers to keenly follow the market changes for potential investment. The one striking feature of the economy of developing countries is that, it is a self made economy and withstands the pressures of the business cycle, such as recession and inflation, unlike foreign markets that have failed to stabilize their markets owing to what is called sub prime lending, a plan that has failed to achieve the desired economic growth. Instead of making the capital market alive with fresh infusions of funds, it has left many banks and financial institutions bankrupt. Banking Sector: Banking sector has scaled to greater heights and has come under a competitive environment. Deregulation of interest rates to attract potential investors, new technology, products and aggressive marketing usher in new competition; disinvestment of government equity in nationalized banks have made banks to operate as commercial institutions and their services get marketed as branded consumer products. Financial services have emerged as a new business and funding options are aplenty increasing the chances of raising capital. This has evolved as a separate and major source of business fetching revenue to the service providers. Private Sector: Private sector is gaining importance in countries like India, where they have entered all the core industries like oil, mining, telecommunications, road building, railways, ports, civil aviation etc. This serves as a revenue source for the government and this kind of economic restructuring has brought a wave of enthusiasm amongst the potential investors. Imports have become an entrepreneurial activity and are out of the government domain and this has been facilitated by relaxation of licensing hassles. These are some of the recent trends in the developing countries that have captured the interest of multinational...
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Budget Planning

Budget Planning
Budget Planning Quantification of Objectives in the form of Budgets Effective and efficient management of a business enterprise is facilitated, when a firm charts its course of action in advance. The management function also includes decision-making supported by various managerial techniques and tools that integrate the activities of the employees of the organization. One such systematic approach to profit planning is budgeting. The prime concern of budgeting is to make profits by regulating the flow of funds and allocating the controlling function to various responsibility centers. Don’t know how to start budgeting? Do you need to know how to make a budget ? This infographic will provide personal budget categories you can use to help you categorize expenses for budgeting purpose. This may or will save you time, money, and effort. What is a Budget? A budget is a comprehensive and coordinated financial plan, charted for a specific period of time in the future, but well in advance. It facilitates to compare the actuals with the standards established and review or revise the plans accordingly in case of any deviations or variances. A budget is a plan that is concerned not only about the resources of a firm, but also its operations. It involves the control and manipulation of relevant variables-controllable and non-controllable, and reduces the impact of uncertainty. Economic Constraints in Developing Countries The global economy has its imposing influence on the budget of developing countries, where it is always a deficit budget, the countries finding it difficult to allocate the meager resources available among the different sectors of economy competing for the same. Problems of unemployment, inflation and crude oil prices touching a dangerous high, these countries can offer only piecemeal measures to sustain the momentum of economic growth. Master Budget Talking about organizations going for the master budget at the start of the year, comprise budgets for various segments of the enterprise. The budget for a segment or department will not have much significance unless it is a part of the total budget-the master budget. If the budgets for various segments are not prepared jointly and in harmony with each other, the master budget will lose much of its importance and may even prove to be harmful in realizing the firm’s expectations. A budget is always expressed in financial terms, either in rupees, dollars or pounds, for operational purposes. Say, in a production budget, you talk about units of raw material and finished product. In a labor budget, you talk about men and labor hours. So there must be a common denominator, which can express all these variable quantities in a common language for the comprehensive budget to be meaningful. This purpose is solved by money, which undoubtedly serves as the common denominator. Budget Mechanism A budget is a mechanism to plan for the firm’s operations and activities. It allocates resources as well as responsibilities to different operational centers like, revenue, cost, profit and investment centres. Time dimension must also be added to a budget. For example, a production target of ten thousand units or a profit target of ten million dollars has no meaning unless and until it is related to a specific time period, in which these targets have to be met. A firm may have its long-range and broad objectives, such as maximum sales, maximum profits, customer satisfaction, social responsibilities, etc., But, to achieve these qualitative objectives, a firm has to quantify the same in the form of short-term objectives or goals with a time period precisely specified. A budget is basically a control technique which also facilitates to measure the performance of individuals on the basis of which, corrective action can be...
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Capital Budgeting- Long Term Resource Planning

Capital Budgeting- Long Term Resource Planning
Capital Budgeting- Long Term Resource Planning What is Capital Budgeting? Capital Budgeting refers to the process of planning expenditures that give rise to revenues or returns over a number of years. The process of investment analysis is essential to have a sustainable advantage in the competitive market and to stabilize the profits through resourceful strategic business units. The firm’s management must be on the alert to explore the opportunities present in the market. Obsolete product lines and changes in consumer tastes may present additional problems to a business enterprise affecting the profitability and growth. When a firm decides to venture into projects that demand huge investments, the management has to scrutinize the economic feasibility of such projects. The process of capital investment is also crucial because the projects are for the most part irreversible. Say, for example, if a business firm purchases a special type of machinery, and after installation, if the firm reverses its decision to sell the merchandise due to some technical reasons, it will have only a very small second hand value. Business firms based on the cash flow of the project and the capital recovery period do long-term investment. Why do firms opt for capital budgeting. The reasons may be: To replace worn out equipments that will affect the production efficiency To replace obsolete equipments to install new and more efficient ones To expand production facilities in lieu of increasing demand for the firm’s products and to capture new markets To divest the surplus funds from other business units and to rotate the funds, as idle funds will not generate any revenue To develop new products Research and development Investments made to comply with government regulations, such as projects undertaken to meet government’s health and safety regulations, pollution control and to satisfy other legal requirements. People Involved The proposals for new projects come from the internal environment, such as department heads, executives, employees and of course the management. Experts in product development, marketing research, industrial engineering examine the investment proposals and they may regularly meet with the heads of other divisions in brainstorming sessions to zero in on the proposals. This free course from Udemy is Ideal for people interested in entrepreneurship, fintech, big data, startups, finance, private equity, VCs, & investing. Investment Crowdfunding 101 (a.k.a Equity Crowdfunding) Learn about a transformative financial technology just legalized in the US (May of 2016) and everything you need to be in the know about crowdfund investing (sometimes called Equity Crowdfunding). Build the vocabulary, rules, and use cases of crowdfund investing in 25 minutes. Departments Involved While the firm’s top management makes the final say or decision to undertake or not a major investment project, the process is likely to involve most of the firm’s divisions. Each department has to present its view on the feasibility and viability of the project. The marketing department- on the demand for the new or modified products that the firm plans to sell The production, engineering, personnel and purchasing departments- on the estimation and cost of the investment projects The financing department on- how the required investments funds have to be raised. Thus, the process of expenditure analysis can truly be said to integrate the operation of all the major divisions of the...
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