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Unsecured and Secured Short Term Sources

Unsecured and Secured Short Term Sources
Unsecured and Secured Short Term Sources Unsecured Non-Bank Short Term Sources Commercial Paper: Short-term, unsecured promissory notes, generally issued by large corporations, with maturities of a few days to 270 days. Usually issued in multiples of $100,000 or more. Commercial paper market is composed of the (1) dealer and (2) direct-placement markets. Advantage:  Cheaper than a short-term business loan from a commercial bank. Dealers require a line of credit to ensure that the commercial paper is paid off. Private Loans: A short term unsecured loan may be taken from a wealthy shareholder, a major supplier, or other parties interested in assisting the firm through a short term difficulty. Cash Advances for Customers: A customer may pay for all or a portion of future purchases before receiving the goods. This aids the firm to purchase raw materials and produce the final goods. This form of financing is a special arrangement for expensive or custom-made items that would strain the financial resources of the manufacturing company. Secured Short-term Sources: Security (collateral) — Asset (s) is pledged by a borrower to ensure repayment of a loan.  If the borrower defaults, the lender may sell the security to pay off the loan. Collateral value depends on: Marketability Life Riskiness Types of Inventory Backed Loans: Field Warehouse Receipt — A receipt for goods segregated and stored on the borrower’s premises (but under the control of an independent warehousing company) that a lender holds as collateral for a loan. Terminal Warehouse Receipt — A receipt for the deposit of goods in a public warehouse that a lender holds as collateral for a loan. Trust Receipt – This loan is secured by specific and easily identified collateral that remains in the control or physical possession of the borrower. A security device acknowledging that the borrower holds specifically identified inventory and proceeds from its sale in trust for the lender. Example: When automobile dealers use this kind of financing for the cars in their showrooms or in stock, it is called floor planning. As implied by the name, this kind of loan requires a considerable degree of trust in the honesty and integrity of the borrower. Once the inventory is sold or the receivable is collected, payment must be remitted to the lender. If there is a default, the loan is said to be secured by bogus collateral. These loans are common when the collateral is easily identified by description or serial number and then each item of collateral has relatively large dollar value. Floating Lien — A general, or blanket, lien against a group of assets, such as inventory or receivables, without the assets being specifically identified Chattel Mortgage — A lien on specifically identified personal property (assets other than real estate) backing a loan. Related Posts: MEANING AND DEFINITION OF FINANCE INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND FINANCE STARTUP COST FOR SME’S Financial Institutions: Primary sources of secured short term financing are banks and financial institutions, including insurance companies, finance companies, and the financial subsidiaries of major corporations. The best mix of short-term financing depends on: Cost of the financing method Availability of funds Timing Flexibility Degree to which the assets are encumbered It is always better to go for bank loans or loans from established and long standing private institutions because there is a leverage for the debtors to sit for discussions to sort out issued in case of defaults. All banks in India are trying to close accounts labeled under NPA- Non Performing assets either by recovering the money through one time settlement  (OTS) or by auctioning the collaterals pledged during the time of loan sanctioning. If you happen to take loans from individuals or third-parties, you...
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Technological Impact on Business Environment

Technological Impact on Business Environment
Technological Impact on Business Environment and Society The tremendous technological growth that is being witnessed is made possible through extensive programmes of technological research being conducted by many types of researchers working within universities, business, and non-profit research organizations. Technological developments are strong and all pervasive forces of the business environment. Technology is the scientific knowledge to practical problems. Technology feeds on itself and it affects business in two major ways: Through its impact on society in general Through its direct influence on business operations and activities. Linkedin Profiles That Don’t Suck!: Learn the Insider LinkedIn Success Tactics That Will Have Recruiters Calling You! Technology and Economic Growth: Technology affects society. In fact, we feel its effect in our everyday lives. It affects economic growth, our standard of living and our culture. However, some of the effects of technology are highly beneficial and some detrimental. These effects on members of the society may in turn affect business practices. We are surrounded by so much of technology, that we take it for granted and usually do not realize how much it affects us until we have to do without electricity, water, transport or telephone. Technological developments have raised the standard of living. In spite of inflationary pressure and considerably a high degree of unemployment, generally families eat better, wear a wider variety of clothing, and live in more comfortable homes. Technology and Lifestyle: Technology also influences basic aspects of our culture, including religion, education, mobility, health care, art, language, laws and their enforcement. For example, technological advances in health care allow physicians to treat their patients in a virtual environment through video conferencing, which again is helpful in legal environment too for the judges to proceed with investigations on hard core criminals, who need not be produced before the court for security reasons. Creative Destruction: Every new technology is a force involved in creative destruction. Say, television hurts movies, synthetic fibers are considered rival for cotton fiber. The discovery of new technology even sometimes affects economic growth-TV with its high entertainment value takes away productive hours of mankind. Each new technology creates major long term consequences, which are not always foreseeable. How do you justify nations spending more money to develop missiles, nuclear weapons and bombs for the sake of security? Developing nations have to buy technology from foreign countries, as they are not resourceful in terms of capital needed for Research and Development, expertise, patents, licenses, and equipments and so on. This transfer of technology involves huge costs as a result of which a vicious circle is formed, in which weak technology creates dependence and dependence creates weakness. Conserve, Reduce, Recycle: The recent trend can be enumerated through this slogan, “Conserve, reduce and recycle”. The stress today is on clean production measures, advanced robotics, zero-emition vehicles, material recycling and alternative fuels and materials. This change towards love for environment by the technologists is a sure sign of positive...
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Executive Development

Executive Development
Executive Development – Options are Wide Open Who is an Executive: A person or group having administrative or managerial authority in an organization. While “executive” and “manager” and “leader” are often used interchangeably, “executive” is commonly used to signify the top 5% to 10% of the organization. Executive Development : aimed at developing the skills and competencies of those that (will) have executive positions in organisation. Capabilities of a Good Manager: A good manager can make an organization grow, survive and shine amidst tough competition, if he is bestowed with corporate competencies such as perseverance, capacity to put in hard work, sense of loyalty and responsibility, all of which may be inherited or acquired qualities. Loyalty stems from internalized morality that may be a result of his value system. Executive success is what the organizations should aim for, and firms should try to figure out the fundamental components that make up the success formula or equation. Road to Self-Development: In less developed countries, employees are more than satisfied if they are provided with a job that offers safety and security. Their thinking is restricted to mere physical and biological comforts and does not go beyond that point, where self development and self-actualization come into the picture. In developed countries, the situation is quite different, where the workers aim for empowerment and look for reasons that motivate them to do a job. Money also has its due role to play, and people whose wages are very meager cannot be expected to aim for empowerment, where their single motive is mere survival. Abraham Maslow’s Point of View: Abraham Maslow puts forward the hierarchical needs theory, arguing that, there are five levels of needs for people in general, right from physiological needs at the bottom of the pyramid and need for self actualization at the top, and safety, security and esteem needs coming in between. He points out that, once a need is satisfied, it ceases to be a motivator. This is so evident in our day to day lives, where wants and needs never cease to exist and once a want is satisfied, human mind wanders to catch hold of another. So, organizations should understand and analyze, what factors best motivate their employees, particularly their managers (who might serve as a source of inspiration to their subordinates).It should be remembered that non-availability of jobs leads to dissatisfaction whereas availability of jobs need not motivate employees. Some factors which have been proven to be real motivators are as following: Recognition Opportunities for self development Additional responsibilities(lateral expansion) Timely rewards(in terms of money and appreciation) Security Inculcating a sense of belongingness Conducive corporate atmosphere Corporate culture Good human relations Economic burden makes people less enthusiastic and anxious in developing countries and this hinders them from delivering to their fullest potential. Also the bureaucratic approach followed by conservative firms, autocratic leadership style and lack of supportive atmosphere make people work like automatons devoid of creativity. Such firms may show good results in terms of productivity initially, but in due course has to pay the price, in terms of absenteeism, high attrition rates and less efficiency. It has been proven that job satisfaction is directly proportional to efficiency. When people find a job tedious and monotonous, they tend to lose interest, which will be evident from their lack lustrous performance. Performance management has its bearing on executive success and by providing with ample scope for career advancement and autonomy; managers prove their mettle even within limited scope of resources. Acceleration of executive change implies the development of the executive mind for performing managerial activities in a better way. Note : A survey of CEOs in Fortune 500 enterprises indicated that executives spend little time with their...
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Personnel Power

Personnel Power
Personnel Power Personnel or Human Resource Management: is the strategic approach to the management of an organization’s most valued assets – the people. Human resource is always in great demand as competent or skilled labor is in short supply. It is important to remember that no one is born with the value of excellence, as the acquisition is gradual in nature and only possible through proper training and one’s own cognitive perception. It is not that people have to belong to the elite group to make their mark in the respective fields. The best leaders and managers often are ordinary people creating amazing results and astounding success. Try some of these golden etiquettes for achieving excellence in the management of human resource: Clear objectives have to be set with the consensus of the employees Recognize the progress Confront problems Manage with flexibility Understand the value of quality Manage time for better results Enhance decision-making skills by delegating authority Master stress Motivate people Think like a winner Pursue a participative style of leadership To achieve the goals of the organization, the HR department will have to reorient itself on the following lines. It is very important that ‘Right people are chosen for the Right job’. During the induction stage, employee attitudes must be shaped in harmony with the culture of the organization. Dynamic training system should be introduced which is supposed to be a continuous process rather than a sporadic exercise. Quality of Work Life: Organization should ensure satisfactory quality of work life in order to minimize the sense of alienation, found in the workplace. It should contribute to an atmosphere to improve self-discipline, self-motivation and self realization for the purpose of production optimization in terms of both quantity and quality. The presence of a fair performance appraisal system will facilitate the growth prospects of employees in terms of career advancement and development. Fair Compensation: Institutions must work out a fair compensation package for all categories of workmen so that they may be able to receive the living wages instead of subsistence-level wages. The accent should be on production and productivity, without any compromise. Opportunities are aplenty, particularly for experienced personnel as the industries offer wide job prospects for the prospective candidates. Now-a-days job hopping is rampant which is a serious issue to be managed. A number of organizations offer bonus in the form of stock that interjects a feeling of oneness, which ensures alignment of interest between employees and the management. Favored position in terms of enhanced performance from the work force is possible only if the management comes down to embrace and lend their ears to certain rational demands form the other end. Security of Employment Increased wages Employee ownership Participation and employment Internal promotions Information sharing Incentives etc., The personnel function can 1) Attract attention to indicate the importance attached to management’s process and the various policies, practices and systems that support the process. 2) Provide necessary information and expertise on best practices in rival companies to benchmark the process and provide with analytical support for diagnosing and recounting solutions to problems arising in the employee management relation. 3) Engage in business decisions and accelerate change that is consistent with the underlying values of the company. Note: The laws and matters relating to wages and bonus come under the purview of the Ministry of Labor and Employment. The Minimum Wages Bill was passed by the Indian Dominion Legislature and came into force on 15th March,...
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Trade Unions

Trade Unions
People Management and Trade Unions Need for Trade Unions Why do employees join trade unions is an important question. Most of the workers are members of any one of the trade unions. One of the major objectives of trade unionism is to promote industrial democracy. This objective is achieved when trade union is “an organization of the workers, for the workers and by the workers”. In practice this rarely happens and instead unions become an oligarchy. Union leaders by and large, show authoritative behavior with less participation, openness and transparency. Decision-making is centralized, elections are often postponed and positions are filled repeatedly by nominations. Rank and file is pampered with promises and seldom gets near to decision-making process. Positions get worse when unions are guided by outside leaders and regulated by the policies of political parties. Ideology of Trade Unions Absence of democratic leadership reduces the effectiveness of trade unions and prevents the development of trade union leadership from among the workers within the industries. In due course, trade unions become obsessed with political ideology or personal interest ousting the welfare of the workers. Before we move on to the functions of trade unions, let us understand the reasons for the existence of such organizations. To get a common platform to air ones views, aims, ideas and feelings and obtain recognition and status among fellow workers. Make use of the principle of unity for the purpose of securing good working conditions, higher economic compensations, better career prospects and welfare needs. Security of employment and protection against calamity of accident, death and social security after retirement. Restrict management action which is against the interest of the workers. Functions of a Trade Union The internal functions of a labor union includes better wage claim, to ensure better working conditions, reasonable work etc.,The external functions include conducting night school, games, sports and other recreational activities. These two functions may be grouped as economic and social functions. Many unions try to capture political power through election, so that they can influence upon the programmes and policies of government in favor of labor. This function is known as political function. Under the legal functions, the interpretation of law takes the major share. A jist of the main purpose of trade organizations: To improve the standard of living and working condition of the workers. To protect the security of workers’ employment. To ensure better health, reasonable working hours and welfare measures. To improve the political status. To raise the vocational status. To bring better participation in the management. To inculcate the feeling of self respect and confidence among worker force. To bring industrial peace and harmony. As long as unionism is considered as an anathema by the management, there will be lack of harmony and mutual trust between the management and labor force. Management must not consider labor unions as a legal obligation as it does not develop faith and goodwill. Instead the union has to be viewed as a partner in trade to live with and work with. Union must also recognize that work is worship and the survival and success of organization depends on the very survival and success of the workforce. Once the team spirit is built up no unreasonable demands will be raised and union leaders must view strikes and lock outs as last resorts to put pressure on management. The Trade Unions Act, 1926- An act to provide for the registration of Trade Unions and in certain respects to define the law relating to registered Trade...
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