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Transfer of Technology

Transfer of Technology
Transfer of Technology- Commercialisation Vs.Benefit The total influx of technology in underdeveloped countries is from the advanced capitalist countries for obvious reasons, which will be the highlight of this discussion. Multinational corporations play a vital part in technology transfer, the motive being profit maximization for the parent company through their subsidiaries. These corporations act as the principal instrument of technology transfer, either through their subsidiaries or through contractual agreements made with developing countries. The idea is to bring mechanized processes and equipments that are not locally available. Dominance of Technology Supplier: The technology supplier usually takes the upper hand owing to his monopolistic strength that arises from the patent protection for differentiated products and processes. Very often, the terms and conditions of transfer are arbitrarily settled under highly imperfect market conditions by the technology supplying multinationals. Advanced nations have the advantages of reduced population density, even distribution of national wealth, high standard of living, more infusion of capital into research and development, availability of skilled personnel inclined towards research etc. Dependency of Developing Nations: Developing nations on the other hand are subject to the pressures of high population density, uneven distribution of economic wealth (poor people become more poor and the rich even richer), moderate or low living standards etc. Capital drain occurs due to heavy borrowings from the World Bank which leads to increase in the social overheads. In such a situation, it is next to impossible for a developing nation to pump capital into activities concerning research. Bargaining Power of Developing Nations: The bargaining power of developing nations is weak, as they have no access to information about alternate technologies and their sources nor the necessary infrastructure to evaluate the appropriateness of equipments, intermediates and processes. Moreover, the large part of the influx of technology in developing countries is in response to the policy of industrialization through import substitution. Transfer of technology from the developed to the underdeveloped countries is made in a number of ways. They are classified into two broad categories, viz., direct mechanism and indirect mechanism. The direct mechanism includes transfer of technology through banks, journals, industrial fairs, technical co-operation, movement of skilled people etc. Here there is a choice for the developing nation to select the appropriate technology that best suits their requirement. However, this is not the principal form of technology transfer that advanced nations would prefer. Price of Technology: The indirect mechanism implies technology transfer in a “package” or a “bundle” containing technology-embodying equipments, industrial properties like patents and trademark, skill, equity capital, etc. In this system, a local enterprise negotiates with multinational corporations for transport of the required elements of technology, and the terms and conditions are settled through a process of commercial transaction. Since the trading partners are unequal, the terms of contract are invariably restrictive and the price extended for the technology unreasonably high. All the underdeveloped countries, which have opted for growth along the classical path of capitalist development, are in a position to invite multinational corporations, if for no other reason than at least for the diffusion of...
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Grading Your Employees’ Performance

Grading Your Employees’ Performance
How to Grade Your Employees on Their Performance Performance appraisal is the process of obtaining, analyzing and recording information about the relative worth of an employee. Organizational Development: Organizational Development denotes an overall and comprehensive development of an organization supported by the entire team of employees working for that organization. A useful technique in the management process that serves as a measure of performance and productivity is “performance evaluation” or performance appraisal. Performance refers to the degree of accomplishment of the task that makes up an individual’s job. Performance appraisal serves the following purpose: To assess the present levels of employee performance. To understand the future needs in training and development based on the strengths and weaknesses of the employees. To provide feedback on their performance. Serves as a basis for reward allocation, such as, increase in pay scale, promotions and many other decisions like, confirmations, transfer, demotion etc. , Establishes performance standards and offers scope for improvement. Acts as a motivational tool for workers to perform better. Checks and facilitates employees who exhibit poor performance. Also assesses behavioral pattern of the employees. People who work for big corporate companies identify themselves with the objectives of the company and expect feedback, either in the form of a compliment or criticism. Compliments act as morale boosters to perform better and criticism though initially might puncture the ego, induces the potential to perform, to prove oneself. Managers should never be reluctant on their part to appraise subordinates on the job expectations and demands. In an activity as important as managing, there must be no pitfalls to measure performance as accurately as possible. The Appraisal Process: The next important aspect in the appraisal process would be deciding the content to be appraised. Individual task outcomes where performance is evaluated on the outcomes delivered by the individuals, evaluation of personal characteristics and traits or behavior are done to rate the employees as to where they stand in terms of performance. Appraisal Techniques: The widely used managerial technique in the appraisal process is evaluating performance against verifiable objectives, which truly makes sense, because the employees would be blind folded if they don’t have the right direction to proceed. Evaluation can be done in a comprehensive, periodic or continuous fashion. It all depends on the nature of work done, company practice and other situational factors. Say, for instance, performance review can be done after the completion of a major project, that makes sense, doesn’t it? Periodical reviews: Formal reviews can be supplemented and supported with frequent and short informal reviews, for the superior- subordinate relationship to prosper and to keep communication channels open. All said and done, performance review based on verifiable objectives, although gives better vision and clarity, doesn’t allow the manager or subordinate to grow individually. It does not help in personality development, the emphasis ever being focused on accomplishing the operating objectives. The 360 Degree Apparaisal: The latest approach of performance evaluation is the 360 degree appraisal that well suits the managerial cadre. It provides for performance feedback from the full circle of daily contact, that a manager might have, ranging from customers, peers, subordinates, boss etc. , This also fits into organizations that have introduced teams, employee participation and total quality management...
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Performance Appraisal

Performance Appraisal
Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal is considered to be the most significant and indispensable tool for an organization. It is a measure of the employees’ performance levels in terms of the specific job’s requirement. It is a process employed for the purpose of placement, selection for promotions, providing financial rewards and other actions which require differential treatment among the members of a group. Purpose of Performance Appraisal Douglas McGregor says “Formal appraisal plans are designed to meet three needs, one of the organization’s and the other two of the individual namely, Performance appraisal methods facilitate systematic judgments to decide on the salary increases, transfers, demotions or terminations. They serve as a yard stick for an employee as to where he stands in the performance rating queue in the eyes of management and how he needs to adapt or improve himself regarding behavior, attitude, skills or job knowledge. They are used as a means to train and counsel each and every employee by the respective superiors. Performance appraisal can also be termed as Merit rating Behavioral assessment Employee evaluation Personnel review Progress report Staff assessment Service rating. According to Levinson, it definitely provides adequate feedback to each individual for his performance and also serves as a means for changing behavior. Prime Objectives of Performance Appraisal: Helps to maintain man power inventory of an organization which includes quantity and quality, to identify the training needs and aspirations of the work force. To determine increments and provide a reliable index in promotions and transfers to positions of greater responsibility. To improve individual as well as group development by determining the performance standard and motivating the employees to perform well. Providing support to employees who are not able to focus and to bring them back into the groove. The Process of Evaluation: Establishment of performance standards. Communicating the same to employees. Aquiring information through personal observation and statistical reports from the respective departments. Appraising and judging the future potential growth and advancement. Identifying the deviation between the actual and standard performance levels. Discussion with the employee for subsequent improvement or corrective action. Appraisal Summary: 1.    Personnel Background covering the following details are collected Age Family background Marital status Children Education Specialization and degrees Office held Work history Social accomplishments Honors and awards Professional or trade organization membership Publications Special limitations Family problems Hobbies and recreational activities 2.    Nature of Work: Job performance and personal qualification Technical performance Level of motivation in current position Intelligence as reflected on the job Emotional stability Leadership skills 3.    Overall Performance Rating: Recommended action Knowledge Skill Attitude Methods of Performance Appraisal: Traditional methods:  These rely  upon evaluating an individual’s creativity, intelligence, drive, dependability, leadership potential, initiative and organizing capability which are more of personal  in nature. Modern methods: These include ranking method, graphic rating scales, forced choice description method, critical incident and 360 degree evaluation methods. The 360 degree appraisal method is employed in big corporate companies where the individual’s overall performance is appraised by his colleagues, boss, customers, suppliers and stake holders. Management by objectives, management by exception , self appraisal and human asset accounting are other methods used for appraisal. Problems that may arise during performance appraisal: Halo Effect: It is a tendency to let the assessment of an individual’s any one trait to influence the evaluation of that person on other specific traits. The Central Tendency problem: It assigns average rating to all the employees in order to avoid commitment. Similarity error: This occurs when the evaluator evaluates other persons based on ‘self perception’, that is if he perceives himself to be adventurous or daring he may evaluate others looking for that same trait which he possesses. How to make appraisal successful? The superior must be well trained and a composed person to judge without...
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