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Research and Development

Research and Development
Research and Development – Strategic Key for Competitive Advantage Product Innovation and Process Improvement:  With the increasing pace of liberalization and ferocity of competition in the corporate business world, it is mandatory for the firms to invest in research and development activities to sustain in the market. In most of the developing countries, scant attention has been paid to research and development activities. A survey indicates that countries like Japan and United States of America spend 2.8 percent of their Gross National Product on R and D, while it is a mere 0.9 percent of the Gross Domestic Product in the case of some Asian countries. What role does research & development play in the industry and economy? Why it is important for the developing countries to invest more on R and D? In spite of the tax rebate offered by most of the governments for R and D, why industries don’t contribute much to indigenous research? Global Competition: It becomes difficult for business organisations to compete in national and international markets both on quality and cost fronts, primarily because of absence of strong base in science and technology. Third world nations are used to buying technology from developed nations, that make them dependent and technology starved. Limited resource is another problem faced by these business firms, the allocation of which becomes difficult owing to rising costs. Invasion of Multinational and Trans national Giants: Another serious aspect to be considered is the invasion of multinational and transnational giants in every sector due to liberalization, globalization and privatization policies of the developing nations. This leads to panic in the industry, as a result of which, the business firms either go for forged alliances or infuse large amounts of funds into R and D activities hurriedly, both of which is a futile exercise to protect themselves from the onslaught of transnational companies. Science and Technological Advancement: The wiser move for the business firms to withstand the competition on an international level, would be to build their empires on a sustainable basis, by honoring the scientific and technological efforts. A thorough knowledge of all the research activities progressing around the world proves useful in managing their activities and operating with limited resources. This demands a long term plan that will support, strengthen and nurture the specified area of science base selected for research and development. Research Management: A well devised research management programme will help the business firms to formulate short and long term technical plans that aid in the research programme. It is very important for a country to encourage the budding population to become more research oriented, that will help the nation prosper in terms of science and technology, besides which, it also helps in the growth of one’s own economy. Chanakya’s 7 Secrets of Leadership The Research and Development strategic management lays emphasis on formulating plans, that support the short and long term objectives of a business firm, by employing innovative minds in the process and periodically reviewing and restructuring strategies in the light of changing demands of the society. The focus of an R and D manager should be on appraisal of technological and competitive environment, assessment of corporate strengths and weaknesses and making strategic decisions, while formulating R and D...
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SWOT Analysis

SWOT Analysis
Swot Analysis to Strengthen Your Organization What is Swot Analysis and how to do a Swot Analysis Perfectly? Strategy formulation is an integral part of management decision making as strategies come to our risk whilst there are fluctuations in the external environment. A management expert will tell you rightly that strategies are not templates constructed for a specific purpose as they are formulated based on broad policies of a particular organization and have to be in tandem with the enterprise objectives. Nevertheless a CEO will find himself in situations where he might be forced to make instantaneous strategic decisions irrespective of the nature of the problem, only considering the magnitude of the situation. SWOT AND SYNERGY EQUATIONS Significance of SWOT Analysis: The analysis subjectively evaluates the impact of internal and external factors for a business objective. Internal processes and resources are considered strengths and weaknesses (S and W, respectively). External factors affecting the business and industry are considered opportunities and threats (O and T, respectively). An evaluation of these factors develops a strategic perspective that includes the competitive landscape and current market conditions. Need for Alternate Strategic Decisions: Lately we are witnessing a number of multinational giants going in for Joint Ventures and Collaboration. What is the root cause for such alternate strategic decisions? What happened to the value of the “Brand Image” of the organization or the “Profit Margins” which kept the company going? Well, this is where we have to look into the structure of their operations and most importantly the modality formulated to reach their ultimate objectives. Definitely, there would have been a big dent somewhere in the top management notch, failing to see through the obvious.  Market Research is Inevitable for Decision Making: Situations change and we even experience this in our day to day lives, where decision making becomes very difficult at times; further we push the situation to extreme limits and make it worse. Planning is the very basis of our life that facilitates smooth functioning and change for the better. In big corporates, decision making is by and large the responsibility of the top management and they pass on the instructions down the line. It is but natural that the chairman and board of directors should make all the important decisions as they are the potential capital investors. Market research is another area that deserves mention at this juncture without which business persons cannot think of kicking off trade as it will be a sheer waste of money and time. Understanding the pulse of the market and your target customers always help in shaping up the right strategies concerning New product launch Consumer Preference Price determination Product modification etc., Test marketing is one of the strategies followed by many multi national companies while they launch their new products or wish to introduce variations in their product range. THE IMPORTANCE OF DECISION-MAKING Strategies are based on organizational policies and policies have to confer to the objectives and goals of the organization. The top management team should be a set of professional experts who should be able to gauge the existing as well as future trends of the market based on political, legal, environmental and economic changes and sketch their action plans accordingly.Decentralising decision making and delegating the authority as and when needed are also fine strategies to gain co-operation from your employees and to bring co-ordination in the entire business set-up....
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