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Business Policies-Guidelines to Attain Goals

Business Policies-Guidelines to Attain Goals
#Business Policies – Framing and Execution Business policies are the keystone in the arch of #management and the life-blood for the successful functioning of business, because without well-laid down policies, there cannot be lasting improvements in the economic condition of the firm and labor-management relations. A policy is a positive declaration and a command to its followers. It translates the #goals of an organization into selected routes and provides the general #guidelines that prescribe and proscribe programmes, which in turn, dictate practices and procedure. Attainment of Objectives: Buisness policies are general statement of principles for the attainment of objectives which serve as a guide to action for the executives at different levels of management. They pave a broad way in which the #sub-ordinates tread along towards accomplishing their objectives. Hierarchy: For each set of objectives at each level, there is a corresponding set of policies. The #Board of Directors determine the basic overall corporate policies The #top management decides on the executive corporate policies #Managers decide on the departments / divisional policies Middle managers handle  the sectional policies Consistent Decisions contributing to the Objectives: The policies delimit the area within which a decision has to be made; however, they do allow some discretion on the part of the man on the firing line, otherwise, they would be mere rules. At the same time too much of discretion in policy matters may prove harmful to the accomplishment of organizational objectives and hence it is generally within limits. Mutual Application: Policies in general are meant for mutual application by sub ordinates. They are fabricated to suit a specific situation in which they are applied, for they cannot apply themselves. Unified Structure: Policies tend to predefine issues, avoid repeated analysis and give a unified structure to other types of plans, thus permitting managers to delegate authority while maintaining #control. Policies for all Functional Areas: In a well-structured and managed organization, policies are framed for all functional levels of management. #Corporate planning #Marketing #Research and Development Engineering Manufacturing #Inventory #Purchase Physical Distribution #Accounting #Finance #Costing Advertising #Personal Selling #Special Promotion, are some areas that require clear-cut policies. Clear-Cut Guidelines: Policies serve an extremely useful purpose in that they avoid confusion and provide clear-cut guidelines. This enables the business to be carried on smoothly and often without break. They lead to better and maximum utilization of resources, human, financial and physical, by adhering to actions for...
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Organizational Culture

Organizational Culture
Defining Organizational Culture Business is an integral part of the society; and it influences other elements of the social system, which in turn affect business. The entire sphere of business activities are influenced by the social structure and culture of a society. The social system is influenced by the way the business functions, innovations, transmission and diffusion of information and new ideas etc. Business activities have greatly influenced social attitudes, values, outlooks, customs and traits. However, it is very difficult and, in some cases, almost impossible to change many elements of the social environment in the short run. Hence, a business may have to anticipate and adapt to these uncontrollable external environments. Socio-cultural environment refers to the influence exercised by certain social factors, which are “beyond the company’s gate“. This includes attitude of people towards: Work Wealth Knowledge Family Marriage Religion Education Ethics and social responsibility of business. Belief System Influencing the Action: Culture is something that is evolved in a society over a long period and it represents the unified belief system of a large group of people. An organization can be distinguished from another by way of its culture, since organizational culture is unique in its perspective and methodology. When people from different social backgrounds are made to work under the same roof, a corporate organization acquires a distinct culture. Culture conveys a sense of identity for the organization. It facilitates the generation of commitment to do something noble than one’s own self-interest. Cultural Differences: As business go international, the need for understanding and appreciating cultural differences across countries is essential. Any move from one country to another will create a certain amount of confusion, disorientation and emotional upheaval. Especially, people form Asian countries that migrate to the west are subjected to what is called a “culture shock”, in terms of attitude, working style, language, way of life, dress codes and negotiating styles. Freshers may adapt to these changes quickly, since they are natural and easy to be trained. The problem arises with individuals who had been working under a totally different cultural setup from that of the new cultural environment; they will have to undergo the process of ‘unlearning‘, which is more like swapping old ideas for new ideas. This change process is what both the employees and the management find challenging; but ultimately what needs to be done has to be done. Culture Shock: Multi national and Trans national companies, which have business establishments in different parts of the world, must be prepared to cope with the culture shock. Since huge investments go into their projects, they have to think and analyze about the cultural and social aspects that have a definite impact on the working of organisations. For example, the work attitude of employees in the west might lay emphasis on services and results, oriented towards self-improvement; while that of the Asian counterparts may be patience and sacrifice rooted in emotions and loyalty. Business can be considered as a large social network serving to satisfy economic and social interests; culture acts as the social glue that helps hold the organization together by providing appropriate standards for the behavior of organization members. Slogans of Some Reputed Organizations in the Industry: Nokia: Connecting people Jet Airways: The joy of flying Reliance Industries: Growth is life Citibank: Your citi never sleeps The above cited examples give you a fair idea about what a particular company stands for. The orientation of these companies, expressed in the form of SLOGANS contributed to the successful conduct of their...
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Decision Making

Decision Making
Evaluating the Importance of Decision Making Successful decision making is one that is devoid of any ambiguity or #tentativeness. Although there is a wide range of choice and alternative techniques to arrive at a decision, timely decision making is what adds value to the decision. The objective is to execute the action plan immediately to avoid delays that might prove costly in terms of #productivity. Defensive #behavior of #managers: Managers who are the key figures to make decisions sometimes play defense to avoid action, blame or change. They exhibit a variety of defensive behaviors which is a wasted effort; this also makes the workers lethargic in their #attitude. Avoiding action is considered to be the best political strategy. Some managers always talk about the rules and regulations that have been followed for ages in that company and want every action to be rigidly adhered to the precedence and neither allows nor admits the need to consider the nuances of a particular case. Decision-making models for entrepreneurs #policies and #procedures: Policies and procedures are of course the prerogative of the top level management, but it is the duty of the manager to suggest reforms in those policies that are obsolete by bringing it to the perusal of the ultimate authorities. How long will you sing the same song “The rules clearly state that”!Also don’t try to pass the buck or play duals, that clearly showcases your inability to handle things and nobody nowadays is prepared to believe false pretense. #expectation of Sub-Ordinates from the Superiors: Subordinates look up to their superiors for support as well as quick solutions for problems of any kind that comes their way; only a person who is quick in reacting to situations with presence of mind and consideration is well liked by and approved of. If you distance yourself from problems or try to prolong a task in lieu of your inability to make a decision, in the short run it might prove helpful in covering up making you look busy and productive. But what happens in the long run? It leads to organizational rigidity and stagnation in terms of productivity and a sag in the #morale of the #employees. Fifty Models for Strategic Thinking  Playing it Safe is not Always Safe: Playing safe is not always safe. Some managers always like to lead a team that has taken up viable projects with a high probability of success. There is no pain but lots of gain. This tactics makes you devoid of risk taking -which according to me is the prime and supreme quality that a manager or a team leader must possess or at least try to develop. Also taking a neutral position in #conflict situations makes you a dull leader and not a person to be much sought after. Finance For Managers What is the result of Poor Decision Making? The first and foremost thing that managers have to understand and admit is that, poor decision making is the root cause of failed course of action. They should have the guts to admit and take up the responsibility for the negative outcome and not to seek some strategically helpless defense mechanisms. Making others a scapegoat for your helplessness doesn’t shield you for long but puts you in the defending territory forever. #defensiveness delays decisions, affects organizational success, sets a bad precedence, increased group conflicts, interpersonal tensions and leads to unreliable evaluations. The long and short of the discussion clearly highlights the importance of recruiting not only a qualified manager but a committed and reliable person who has the ability to take risks and tackle crisis situations with ease and steer the #organization smoothly...
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Power and Balance

Power and Balance
Power and Balance in Corporate Governance Power has the ability to disorient a person’s behavior and attitude. When properly used it leads to height of efficiency, when misused it calls for calamity and disorientation in the entire business firm. It is nothing but the authority that comes with your job which has to be utilized for constructive purpose and at the same time to ascertain that things are “going in the right direction.” Precise use of power leads to a congenial atmosphere in your business arena”. Otherwise in course of time you might have to tackle warfare with your subordinates and the “undercurrent of animosity” might ruin your business success. How it affects Inter-Personal Relationship: When we talk about POWER it usually fits well into the top level management cadre, as managers and senior managers are assigned with huge powers in order to lead the firm in times of crisis as well as maintain the consistency of the nature of the firm. So when there is abuse of power consciously or unconsciously, people create a space between themselves and that particular person who misuses the power. So the result would be a lack of interpersonal relationship between the manager and the employees. Managers generally acquire and use influence that has its impact not only on the behavior of the individuals, but also on the organizational effectiveness as a whole which in turn affects productivity. Use Power as a Constructive Tool: In fact, authoritative behavior is often misunderstood by most of the managers in the business setup; there is a need for the managers to skillfully use their power in order to extract work from their teams as well as to maintain a balance between the extent to which authority must be used and the tolerance level of the employees’ (mind set). So it is more of a psychology which involves much critical analysis on the part of the manager to understand the constructive aspects of his authority and how employees at a lower level will always look up to him for support and guidance and not indifference. Power covers and affects the following important aspects, Discretion Crisis management Dependence of employees Responsibility Leadership Governance Interpersonal relationship Change management Environmental influences Reward systems Collaborative management Success of the firm and so on. In order to maintain his own integrity as well as the organisations’ the manager must be able to appreciate the relevance of power in management just by not looking into the literature but act in accordance with the situation. A detailed analysis of power dynamics makes the manager more effective in dealing with behavior inconsistencies in the organization. Try to be more open in your communication and make your employees feel that “You are always there” to support and guide them. This in turn will make your “Boss to have a second look at you” for a promotional pay. This discussion is from the manager’s perspective and there is more to be discussed and considered from an employee’s...
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Organizational Assessment

Organizational Assessment
ORGANISATIONAL ASSESSMENT- MOTIVE AND MEANS Organizational assessment involves creating a picture of “what it is”. The snapshot should provide a clear view of the present position of the company and it should indicate whether there is a need to go for a change process. The data provides a baseline which can be used as a reference point to measure change in the future. Employee opinion surveys and climate surveys form a critical part of this measurement process. The key to an effective assessment is being clear about the goal of the process and being specific about the questions the intended exercise must answer. Cultural assessment: This provides information about core dimensions of organizational culture which includes satisfaction with the work itself, satisfaction with pay and benefits, opportunities for advancement, satisfaction with leadership and supervision, motivation, common values and performance commitment. If the leader proves to be aggressive, committed, value driven, so will be the employees who obviously take after their leader to fulfill his vision. The purpose behind analyzing the culture of an organization is to determine its efficiency level and to generate recommendations for continuous improvement. This exercise should not be a one-time affair as periodical inputs and feedback are excellent ways to align culture with the vision. In this way, management is better able to anticipate and prevent any potential problem, and to assess employee attitudes regularly. Survey administration: Surveys are administered to large groups of employees at one time and it is emphasized to be anonymous to erase any apprehensions in their minds. Open-ended questions allow employees to express their opinions about areas that need improvement and also the problem areas or bottlenecks that hinder their development. Report generation: The statistics collected is summarized and presented for each and every dimension covered in the survey. The report compares the organization’s current culture with previous administrations of the survey. Such open ended discussions bring out the problem areas which the management had not been previously aware of. Feedback to management and employees: The managers discuss the outcome of the survey in order to gain a better understanding of the various issues facing the organization, and decide on a plan to give feedback to their employees. This is a kind of human resource strategy which helps the management to bridge the gap between various levels of the organization and its members. Recommendations to the management: A final report submission by managers of the respective departments along with their recommendations for management’s perusal is the final step in organizational diagnosis and with the approval of “the big boss” action plans are executed that aid in improving the organizational effectiveness. The notion of this entire exercise is to provide insight into the current skill levels of the work force and to design an effective plan for performance improvement based on the assessment of total development...
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