# Profitability Ratios and Why They Matter

Profitability ratios are metrics that assess a company’s ability to generate income relative to its revenue, operating costs, balance sheet assets, or shareholders’ equity.  Profitability ratios show how efficiently a company generates profit and value for shareholders. Accounting Basics for Success in Business and in Life! In general two groups of profitability ratios are calculated. Profitability in relation to sales.Profitability in relation to investments. Profitability Ratios can be Classified into five types Gross profit margin or ratioNet profit margin or ratioOperating profit margin or ratioReturn on AssetsReturn on Equity  1. GROSS PROFIT MARGIN OR RATIO It measures the relationship between gross profit and sales.  It is calculated by dividing gross profit by sales. Gross profit margin or ratio = Gross profit X 100 / Net salesGross profit is the difference between sales and cost of goods sold. 2. NET PROFIT MARGIN OR RATIO It measures the relationship between net profit and sales of a firm.  It indicates management’s efficiency in manufacturing, administrating, and selling the products.  It is calculated by dividing net profit after tax by sales.  Net profit margin or ratio = Earning after tax  X  100 / Net Sales 3. OPERATING PROFIT MARGIN OR RATIO It establishes the relationship between total operating expenses and net sales.  It is calculated by dividing operating expenses by the net sales. Operating profit margin or ratio = Operating costs  X  100 / Net sales (0r) Cost of goods sold + Operating expenses * 100 / Net sales Operating expenses includes cost of goods produced/sold, general and administrative expenses, selling and distributive expenses. 4. RETURN ON ASSETS Return on assets is the ratio that is used to measure the company’s ability to generate profit by using its whole resource, the assets. It shows the percentage of the net income or net profit comparing to the average total assets. Return on assets shows how efficient the company is in using the assets to generate profits in a period of time. The high return on assets usually shows that the company performs well in making a profit from the assets it has. Return on assets can be calculated by comparing net income or net profit after interest and tax in the period to average total assets. Return on Assets = Net Profit / Average Total Assets 5. RETURN ON EQUITY Return on equity is the ratio that is used to measure the company’s ability to generate profit by using its investors’ money. It shows the percentage of the net income or net profit comparing to the average total equity. Return on equity shows how efficient the company is in using the investor’s money to generate profits in a period of time. The high return on equity usually shows that the company performs well in making profits from its investors’ money. Return on equity can be calculated by comparing net income or net profit after interest and tax in the period to average total equity. Return on Equity = Net Profit / Average Total...

# Concept of Cost

Cost-A Key Concept in Economics for Managerial Decision Making The concept of cost along with demand and supply constitute three of the basic areas of managerial economics. Analysis of cost is essential when it comes to large-scale production, where the firm is in a position to factorize the economies of scale. For a profit-maximizing firm, the decision to add a new product is done by comparing additional revenues to additional costs associated with that project.   Aids in Decision Making Decisions on capital investment are made by comparing rate of return on investment with the opportunity cost of the funds used to make capital acquisition. Costs are equally important in non-profit sector. For example, to obtain funding for a new dam, a government agency has to demonstrate that the value of the benefits of the dam like flood control and water supply, will exceed the cost of the project. It is necessary that we define the term ‘cost’ for better understanding. The traditional definition tends to focus on the explicit and historical dimensions of cost. In contrast, the economic approach to cost emphasizes opportunity cost rather than historical and includes both explicit and implicit costs.   Opportunity Cost: Opportunity costs are fundamental costs in economics, and are used in computing cost benefit analysis of a project. Such costs, however, are not recorded in the account books but are recognized in decision making by computing the cash outlays and their resulting profit or loss. Opportunity cost is the minimum price that would be necessary to retain a factor-service in it’s given use. It is also defined as the cost of sacrificed alternatives. For instance, a person chooses to forgo his present lucrative job which offers him Rs.50000 per month, and organizes his own business. The opportunity lost (earning Rs. 50,000) will be the opportunity cost of running his own business. Fixed and Variable Cost: A company’s total cost is composed of its total fixed costs and its total variable costs combined. Variable costs vary with the amount produced. Fixed costs remain the same, no matter how much output a company produces. Semi-variable is the type of costs, which have the characteristics of both fixed costs and variable costs. Fixed costs and variable costs comprise total cost. Total cost is a determinant of a company’s profits which is calculated as: Profits = Sales – Total Costs. The cost which remains same, regardless of the volume produced, is known as fixed cost. A variable cost is a corporate expense that changes in proportion with production output. Variable costs increase or decrease depending on a company’s production volume; they rise as production increases and fall as production decreases. Feel free to share this infographic on “Concept of Costs” Cost Reduction: Cut Costs and Maximise Profits: Be flooded with ideas on how to cut your...