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Levels of Organization

Levels of Organization
Levels of Organization An organization is a network consisting of people interacting to accomplish the enterprise objectives. The inter relationship is always complex as groups tend to develop conflicts and difference of opinion among themselves and in between. Hence the structure of an organization should be designed to clarify who is to do what task and who is responsible for what results and to furnish decision-making devoid of uncertainty. Organization implies to Recognizing and classifying the required activities Grouping of activities in order to achieve the objectives Appointing a manager and assigning him with the necessary authority to lead each group The provision for co-ordination vertically and horizontally “Organization is the establishment of authority and relationships with provision for coordination between them, both vertically and horizontally in the enterprise structure,” According to Koontz. FORMAL ORGANISATION It implies a formalized intentional structure of roles or positions. Formal organization must be flexible. ·         The formal structure is laid down by the top management ·         The levels are designed on the basis of specialization ·         Purely task oriented and not people oriented ·         Rules are very stringent and everyone is expected to follow them without fail INFORMAL ORGANISATION A network of personal and social relations arising spontaneously as people associate with one another and not restricted by the formal rules or structure. One important aspect of organizing is the establishment of department. Department designates a distinct area, division, or branch of an organization over which a manager has authority for the performance of specified activities. ·         Spontaneous in nature ·         More people oriented ·         Based on religion, culture, common problems faced by the workforce etc., ·         Membership is voluntary and the same person can be a member of many groups. ORGANISATION LEVELS AND SPAN OF MANAGEMENT Why there is a need to organize? To co-ordinate the activities of the people involved in the organization’s functions for which there needs to be certain levels established to facilitate the co-operation effective. There are two types of spans, 1. Wide span 2. Narrow span WIDE SPAN: Wide span of management has fewer organizational levels with more number of sub-ordinates reporting to a superior. Though it proves advantageous for the superior as delegation becomes part of the process and hence work is shared, care must be taken in selecting the right people for completion of tasks and clear policies must be made to avoid confusion. There is this tendency of overloaded superiors to become decision bottlenecks and there exists the danger of superior’s loss of control too. This kind of management needs exceptionally qualified managers to lead the respective groups. NARROW SPAN: Narrow span of management involves many organizational levels with fewer number of employees reporting to a superior. This facilitates close supervision, close control and fast communication between superiors and subordinates. On the contrary, superiors tend to get too involved in subordinates’ work and this kind of management incurs higher costs due to many levels in the organization and there is excessive distance between the lowest and top most levels. FACTORS DETERMINING AN EFFECTIVE SPAN: 1. Training of Subordinates: Well trained subordinates save much time and energy of the superiors and training has to be a continuous process as the technological policies and procedures are subjected to change periodically. 2. Clarity of Delegation of Authority: Clarity implies direction and guidance from the manager’s end to the subordinate. A manager has the responsibility of clearly explaining the task and the methods involved to complete the task in a suitable manner to his subordinates. In cases of machine handling, “On the Job Training” becomes inevitable. If not, the work will not be completed as per the schedule due to lack of clarity. 3. Clarity of Plans: In a production environment, the workers have to be apprised about the plans...
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There is no Business Success Without Risk

There is no Business Success Without Risk
There is no Business Success Without Risk What is the Risk of Taking a Chance in a Business Activity? Business is often viewed as a game or a gamble in which success is always at risk. Think about it, risk is present in every sphere and aspect of our lives and even when you are not running a business. So why the fuss? A thorough knowledge and research of the business activity you are about to perform will give you the needed confidence to go about it. A true business man is an entrepreneur who treats risk as an opportunity rather than a challenge. Business organizations are started with a single purpose, to make profit and then more profit. Only when the organizations grow, there comes the awareness and necessity to think about stakeholders’ interest and working towards a social cause. Initial stages definitely pose threats for the very survival of the organization. Risk is an inherent part of a business as you are not sure about the outcome of your business activity. What are the Chances or Probability? We talk more about probability and chance outcomes when you deal with a particular product. Retail segment is one area where the risk of duplication is high and people have to be cautious and careful in order to protect their copyrights and symbols from being replicated. Mild inflations can benefit the market but recessions put you in doldrums especially if you are dependent on a wholesaler or a manufacturer. Risk can aspect itself in the following ways: Economically- Attrition and effects of global economy Legally- Labor laws and enactments Socially- Expectations from the public in general Government rules and regulations- Government policies and export duties Stakeholder expectations- Wealth maximization and assured profits Environmental – Need to comply with changing standards like waste affluent treatment plants Political scenario- Effects due to changing governments Risk and Uncertainty Risk and uncertainty go hand in hand and you need a risk management template or a model for your reference to solve or manage risks. The first and foremost step would be to identify the risks in your sphere of business activity. Risk documentation or creating a risk profile is an inevitable move for a new organization. This prepares the organization mentally to face challenges in a structured manner and reduces disorientation. It is very important to keep in mind the organisation’s objectives while documenting the risk profile to keep your focus unaltered. Risks evolve continuously and it is the responsibility of the top management to be in line with the market economy to manage the adverse conditions that come in the way. How to Manage Risks? Risk management is an ongoing and continuous process and it cannot be looked upon as a distinct area to be managed by a set of individuals. In a small and upcoming organization the responsibility lies on the shoulders of each and every individual to self assess, evaluate and manage risks and find the right kind of solution that will not be detrimental to the core objectives of the organization. Bigger organizations can afford to have expert opinion by commissioning PROFESSIONALS to identify, assess and manage risks. An overall and broad perspective of risk is what has been analysed here. There are numerous possibilities of risks, whether big or small in magnitude, affecting an organization. A thorough study of the field you are about to venture into, the pros and cons of the business activity, time of launch are few things that will help you to analyse what the market niche warrants for and act accordingly. In further segments, let us look into the factors of risk, identifying and...
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Is Profit Maximization an Appropriate Goal

Is Profit Maximization an Appropriate Goal
Is Profit Maximization an Appropriate Goal Every business organisation’s aim is to make profit and more profit. Does it end there? What should be the real motive behind running an organization? Profit maximization alone does not help the organization to firmly plant its feet in the business environment, as the success of an organization in the long run is decided by many critical factors like, market share, value of the company shares, market stand, image etc. So, shall we say, let wealth maximization be the goal of any organization, which focuses on increasing the “earnings per share” of the share holders. What is Profit Maximization? Profit maximization does not take into consideration, the interest of share holders or stake holders, who ought to be the ultimate beneficiaries. Concentrating on short term profits confines a firm and limits its scope and growth whereas; value creation is something that the management should aim for, as it helps to increase the “net worth” of a company. Mere price versus output calculations make firms to operate in a profitable manner, but it should never be the only objective of a firm, as it has the moral and social responsibility to patronize its shareholders by increasing the net worth of the company. Learn How to Profit In Forex With Market Rhythms Underlying Logic While maximizing profit, a firm either produces maximum output for a given amount of input, or uses minimum input for producing a given output. Thus the underlying logic for profit maximization is efficiency. Under perfect competitive market conditions, profit serves as a perfect measure for the performance of a firm. If profit is the motive of a firm, it fails to consider the time value of money which is an important criterion that decides the success of a firm, and also it values benefits received today and after a period as the same. Moreover the uncertainty factor is there to be considered too. Firms always prefer to have smaller but surer profits rather than larger benefits but less certain. Impact of Taxes When we talk about profits, the next indispensable factor will be the taxes that demand a portion of your profit. Maximizing profits after the payment of taxes facilitates the firm to increase the net profit ratio to serve the best interests of the owners. But, this also fails to maximize the economic welfare of the owners, as it does not take into account, the timing and uncertainty of the benefits. Wealth maximization is the ideal alternative that is consistent with the survival goal and also with the personal objectives of managers such as recognition, power, status and personal wealth. The Right Balance between Risk and Return Mangers while deciding on investment options, seek to achieve a right balance between risk and return. If the firm borrows heavily to finance its operations, care should be taken to ensure that, the rate of return on investment should be sufficient enough to support the payment of interests on borrowings and also to repay the principal. If the firm is not able to “service the debt” there is a danger of the firm becoming bankrupt or insolvent. The firm’s investment and financing decisions are unavoidable and continuous. In order to make rational decisions, the firm must have a goal, which is nothing but the “shareholder’s wealth maximization” which is theoretically logical and operationally...
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