About Us|Contact Us|Register|Login

[google-translator]
Currently Browsing: Economics

Entrepreneurship in Developing Economies

Entrepreneurship in Developing Economies
Entrepreneurship in Developing Economies Entrepreneurial development is a complex process of change. It has been recognized as an important ingredient of economic development. The development of entrepreneurial activity depends upon the closely interlinked economic, social, cultural, religious and psychological variables. Developing countries of late have adopted a deliberate policy of promoting and encouraging small enterprises as a strategy, for the overall development of their countries. Practical Problems Faced by Developing Countries The numerous problems confronted by developing countries such as, a high rate of population growth, a relatively low rate of economic growth, a low level of capital income with nearly fifty percent of the population subsisting below the poverty line and mounting increase in the figures of educated unemployed-all these check the growth of entrepreneurial activities. Countries have to plan realistically, mobilize and harness resources, have control over factors of growth and development and give direction to the development process. Naturally then, the national and economic goals will be focused towards: Production and productivity to be increased in the primary, secondary and tertiary sectors Maximum harnessing and utilization of material and human resources Solving problems of unemployment Having a check on population growth Equitable distribution of wealth and income To increase the purchasing power parity To increase the gross national product To increase the real per capita income Improving the quality of life Industrial Development The larger scope and potential to achieve these goals lie in the development of the industrial sector of the national economy, and the only alternative to raise the level of living is development of industries. Here, we are not merely concerned with certain quantum of growth and development in the industrial field. Theoretically, the desired quantum of industrial development could be supported by a few large investments and capital intensive units run by a small number of big entrepreneurs. But what is envisaged is to have the same quantum of industrial development with a wider spread consisting of large number of small entrepreneurs all over the country. This would result in development of small scale and tiny sector industries all over the country and would generate employment opportunities to the educated unemployed, skilled people and other potential entrepreneurs from various segments of the society. Scenario of Asian Countries Most of the Asian countries like India and China are encouraging and promoting entrepreneurial development leading to industrial and economic development. India is now a hot spot for automobiles and its accessories. Being a cost-effective core market for auto components sourcing for global auto makers, the automotive sector is a potential sector for entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurs are risk bearers, find resources and fill market gaps that would be missed by larger, more bureaucratic organizations. Entrepreneurs improve the social welfare of a country by harnessing dormant, previously overlooked talent. Surplus manpower which is considered a great liability can be converted into assets once those with potential are selectively groomed for self-employment and enterprise formation, leading to further job...
read more

Significance of Privatization

Significance of Privatization
Significance of Privatization Privatization that has gathered momentum since around the 1980’s has become the hallmark of the new wave of economic reforms sweeping across the world. It refers to the transfer of ownership or management of an enterprise from the hands of the public sector to private sector. It also means the withdrawal of the state from an industry or sector, partially or fully. Privatization marks a change from dogmatism to pragmatism and amounts to a reversal of policy. It is evident that the economic growth rate has multiplied ever since privatization has come into existence. What is Privatization? 1. The transfer of ownership of property or businesses from a government to a privately owned entity. 2. The transition from a publicly traded and owned company to a company which is privately owned and no longer trades publicly on a stock exchange. Performance of Public Sector: The performance of state owned enterprises in many countries have, by and large been far from satisfactory. This may be attributed to the prevalence of bureaucracy and red tapism in most of the public sector administration. They have often put large burdens on public budgets and external debt. Economic inefficiencies in the production activities with high costs of production, inability to innovate and costly delays in delivery of the goods produced are some of the shortcomings of the public sector. There is also ineffectiveness in the provision of goods and services such as failure to meet intended objectives, diversion of benefits to elite groups, and political interference in the management of enterprises. The relationship between the management and the labor unions is strained owing to the expansion of bureaucracy. Why Privatization? These problems have led many governments to undertake programmes of public sector reform. One Such reform is privatization of publicly managed activities to discard the inefficiencies and improve the economic growth rate. For privatization to succeed: Privatization cannot be sustained unless the political leadership is committed to and unless it reflects a shift in the preferences of the public arising out of dissatisfaction with the performance of other alternatives. Now-a-days, private sector enterprises have started dominating even core industries like petroleum, power and communication under the leadership of visionaries who may be the heads of the states or owners of such private organizations. Public services to be provided by the private sector must be specific or have a measurable outcome. Consumers should be able to link the benefits they receive from a service to the costs they pay for it. Since they will then shop more wisely for different services. Privately provided services should be less susceptible to fraud than government services if they are to be effective. Equity is an important consideration. Privatizing the state owned enterprises reduces corruption and the benefit goes to the society. The process encourages entrepreneurship and leads to intense development of capital market. Governments usually want to sell the least profitable enterprises, those that the private sector is not willing to buy at a price acceptable to the Government. The Government may even fear that if it gives a free rein to the private sector management, its power might be at stakes. All said and done most of the governments view privatization as an important strategy of economic...
read more

National Accounting Concepts

National Accounting Concepts
National Accounting Concepts Why knowing about national accounting concepts is important? National income data are of great importance for the economy of a country. In modern days they are regarded as the accounts of an economy, which are known as social accounts. Social accounts tell us how the aggregate of a nation’s revenue, output and product result from the income of different individuals, products of industries and transactions of international trade.     National policy formulations: The computation of national income forms a basis for a nation to develop its policies for important spheres of action such as employment policies, monetary policies and fiscal policies that determine the growth of an economy. These figures enable us to know the direction which the industrial output, investment, saving etc. take and proper measures can be adopted to bring the economy on the right path.   Facilitates Planning: Gross Domestic Product Gross National Product Net Domestic Product Net National Product Per Capita Income Disposable Personal Income     All these factors comprise the national income and indicate the money value of the flow of goods and services available annually in an economy. Also this statistics helps a nation for proper economic planning. The per capita income refers to the earning capacity of individuals in an economy and more the per capita income, higher is the economic welfare of a country. Uncontrolled population growth and unemployment are major reasons for low per capita income. The wealth cannot be evenly distributed owing to high birth rates and low mortality rates and making the ends meet with the available scant resources becomes a major problem for developing countries.   Distribution of income From the data pertaining to wages, rent, interest and profits, we learn of the disparities in the incomes of different sections of the society. Similarly the regional distribution of income is revealed. It is only on the basis of these that the government adopts measures to remove inequalities in income distribution and attempts at regional equilibrium. There have been differences of opinion regarding ‘nation’ in the concept of national income. In the calculation process, the term ‘nation’ has to be defined exactly as to whether it is the geographical entity of the country to be taken up for computing national income or the incomes earned by the nationals including those residing abroad. Further, since everything has to be equated to the money value, services produced in the economy out of love for humanity cannot be brought under the term national income. Besides, there is an overlapping of occupations, especially in the rural sector of certain countries, which makes it difficult to know about incomes from various...
read more

Managerial Economics and Decision Making

Managerial Economics and Decision Making
Managerial Economics and Decision Making One has to observe the economic prospects of a particular #industry before venturing into it. Most of the people are not aware of the existence of some businesses with fantastic economic characteristics like high rate of return on invested capital, substantial profit margins and consistent growth. How do you think Bill Gates and Warren Buffet were able to make it on the Forbes top millionaires list? Successful leaders focus on the economics of a business for decision making. Economic Aspects of a Market Managerial economics is a #management science that gives you more idea about the economic aspects of a market and how they affect your decision making. This is very important because economic profits play a crucial role in a market based economy., While above normal profits are indicators of expansion and growth, below normal profits cautions you about tightening or retrenchment. Business economics is comprised of several tools of micro and macro economic analysis which are useful in management decision-making that act as facilitators to solve business problems. Micro economic instruments used in this context include demand analysis, production and cost analysis, breakeven analysis, theory of pricing, technical progress, location decisions and capital budgeting . Factors Influencing Management Decisions The macroeconomic concepts that are directly or indirectly related to management decisions include analysis of national income, business cycles, monetary policy, fiscal policy, central banking, public finance, economic growth, international trade, balance of payments, protectionism, free trade, exchange rates and international monetary system. The scope of management science is broad and is closely linked with economic theory, decision sciences and accounting. Traditional economics deals with theory and methodology of management, while managerial or business economics applies these theories to solve business problems. The tools and analytical techniques are useful in providing optimal solutions to business problems. Relationship with economics : Managerial economics borrows concepts from economics to idealize the strategic actions needed for decision making in a problem situation. The analysis of micro and macro economic concepts adds valuable information for the organization. Say, for example, national income forecasting is an important aid for the analysis of business conditions that in turn could be an invaluable contribution to forecast demand for specific product groups. Theories of market structure can be analyzed for market segmentation. Managers have the freedom to choose between the decision alternatives that best suits the objectives of the business enterprise. The challenge is to justify the alternative in terms of cost and benefit. Relationship with decision sciences : Decision models are created to format solutions for problem situations and the process uses techniques such as, optimization, differential calculus and mathematical programming. This also helps to analyze the impact of alternative courses of action and evaluate the results of the model. Economic models provide the organizations with the necessary insight concerning value maximization Relationship to Accounting The accounting data and statements constitute the language of business. The accounting profession has a significant impact on cost and revenue information and classification. A manager therefore must be familiar with the generation, interpretation and use of accounting data. Accounting is also seen as a decision management tool and not as a mere practice of book-keeping. The concepts and practices of accounting can be well applied to improve the economic scope of a project. Economic theory is all about allocating scarce resources between competing ends and managerial economics advocates rules for improving managerial decisions and for efficiently achieving the goals of an...
read more

The Economic Environment of Business

The Economic Environment of Business
The factors that affect the economic environment of business are listed below. Macro Environment The management of a firm is influenced and affected by many factors that exist in the external environment, also called as macro environment. These are beyond the scope of business control and affect the functioning of a business enterprise. Factors of External Environment that Affect Business These factors may present themselves in the form of opportunities or threats and it is the responsibility of a manager to identify the changes in the external environment, be it, social, economic, political, legal, technological, demographic or ecological and devise action plans accordingly, to suit the changing demands and needs of the macro environment.   Buying Power of People The most important and prime factor that affects a firm’s operations and its basic survival is the economic factor. Economy of a country is prosperous only when it is self sufficient and withstands the pressure of inflation or recession. Businesses can flourish only if there is a regular demand for the products manufactured. Economic Factors that Affect Demand The buying power of people and their willingness to pay are also important economic factors that affect demand. In developing countries, people concentrate on “saving” rather than spending, where the economy is showing steady growth. For instance in India, people invest their money in gold and land,both being considered as solid appreciating disposable income,assets. Why do we turn to nonprofits, NGOs and governments to solve society’s biggest problems? Michael Porter admits he’s biased, as a business school professor, but he wants you to hear his case for letting business try to solve massive problems like climate change and access to water. Why? Because when business solves a problem, it makes a profit — which lets that solution grow. Watch the Video Disposable Income The ability of people to buy, largely depends on their employment, income tax and price of the product. The disposable income of people in developing countries is very meager and it further decreases if the rate of tax increases. Ability to Buy This also affects his or her ability to buy. If his concentration is on “saving”, again his ability to purchase is restricted. Even if the individual has the purchasing power, there is no assurance that he or she will buy, it all depends on their willingness to buy. The purchasing power parity of developing countries is very low when compared to developed countries. Role of Technology In recent times, technology also has played an enormous role in bringing an array of new products into the market, and has improved man’s preference for better products. For a business firm, it is very difficult to predict people’s preference as well as changes in their preferences. It needs a great deal of market research and regular updations. If the prices are in decreasing trend, people will not buy the product immediately; they will wait for some more time to derive maximum benefit or value out of their purchase. So, people’s perception about the market economy, social influences and changing preferences definitely affect the willingness to buy. Competitive Market Managing the competition proves to be a tougher task for each and every individual business firm. In today’s modern high flying business environment, people always expect value added services for the products purchased. Business organisations are in a position to compete for customer’s interest as well as income. Firms think of price reductions, aggressive promotional efforts, attractive offers, differentiated product offerings and customer service as competitive tools to have a sustainable and distinctive advantage over others. Offering new product designs, attractive packing, extended credit facilities, free door delivery and fast and competent repair services...
read more

« Previous Entries Next Entries »