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International Trade and Finance

International Trade and Finance
International Trade and Finance What is Trade? Trade is the exchange of commodity and services. International trade represents business transactions taking place at the global level, and it is fundamentally different from domestic trade. Trade at international level demands huge investments, network of franchisees and proficient people to run the show. Many corporate giants are trying to capture Asian markets, especially Indian market, which has become the industrial hub for such economic activities. Economic liberalization has been the focus of many developing countries for the past two decades and this has allowed multinational companies with huge investment potential to enrich the weaker economies. What is International Trade? International trade tries to generate more foreign exchange, which is always good for the economy. Say, if a country has rich resources of petroleum, naturally it will try to sell the surplus to countries not endowed with such natural resources. JavaScript is not available. Because of #demonetisation move, the focus is all the more high on #digital payments as the way forward. https://t.co/V80587CvS4 That is why Middle East nations are prosperous and economically independent. The diversity in productive possibilities in different countries is due to the presence of limited natural resources. When a country gets a head start in a particular product, it can become the high volume, low cost producer. The economies of scale give it a significant advantage over other countries, which find it cheaper to buy from the leading producers than to manufacture the product themselves. Barriers for Effective Trade: Every nation must try to specialize in the production and export of those commodities, which are available in plenty and must import such products in the production of which they have a resource deficiency. It should be remembered that there are severe man made barriers in international trade such as, export duties, quotas, exchange restrictions etc.,that hinder the free movement of products. JavaScript is not available. UPI to create a boom in cashless economy. Giving way to the revolution of Digital Payments. Go Cashless Go Digital pic.twitter.com/0ODTrJbSqP Nevertheless, it is not also possible for a country to produce domestically every kind of product. In spite of all these restraining factors, global trade is thriving, thanks to the advanced technological aspects introduced in communication and faster means of transportation. Distance is no more a constraint and the world has become one small global village. Foreign Exchange Issues: All domestic transactions, say in a country like India take place in rupees, which is the legal tender in the country. However, in its trade with other countries like USA, Germany, Japan, France and Britain, the payments have to be made in terms of dollars, marks, yens, francs and pound sterling respectively. JavaScript is not available. Rupee hits record low of 68.86 against dollar – Click to see also ☛ https://t.co/r0M91S8Du8 … #rupeeVSdollar pic.twitter.com/gufuzwlDp3 The mechanism through which payments are effected between two countries having different currency systems is called foreign exchange. It may be also defined as the exchange of money or credit in one country for money or credit in another. Foreign exchange rates can affect relative prices and net exports. A rise in the a nation’s foreign exchange will depress that nation’s net exports and output, while a fall in the foreign exchange rate will increase net exports and output. Because of the significant impact of exchange rates on national economies, countries have entered into agreements on international monetary...
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Export is the Key to Growth

Export is the Key to Growth
Export can be in the form of merchandise (goods) or services (invisibles). When an entrepreneur wants to spread out his scope of business activity beyond the territory of his nation it is called export, whence he has to prepare himself to confront the challenges prevailing in the global market. How to go about Export? Business by itself calls for discipline whether you talk about your credit policy, quality of your product or services, on time delivery, payments, fund rotation, human resources management and the like. The taste of success in the domestic market gives you the necessary confidence to spread your wings far and wide. To be a part of the global market, you are expected to imbibe not only more discipline and order but you should be very thorough about the procedures and policies of the country, to which you are planning to export and the various legal formalities pertaining to your business activity. How to Export From India Pic Courtesy: Procedure to Start Export Business from India What will be your plan of action if your merchandise is disapproved of its quality after reaching the destination or the shipment gets destroyed due to some eventuality? To combat contingencies we have to have a representative working for us in the chosen place of activity who would report and handle the proceedings. Pre-Requisites for Exporting Goods: How many people do you think who have acquired the desire to export their products have a clear idea about the steps involved in starting an export business? First you have to secure the IEC CODE (import export code) from the DGFT (Director General of Foreign Trade) that comes under THE MINISTRY OF COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY. What is IEC Code? Import Export Code (also known as IEC) is a 10 digit identification number that is issued by the DGFT (Director General of Foreign Trade), Department of Commerce, Government of India. Info Courtesy: Shiprocket.in It is also known as Importer Exporter Code. It is mandatory for companies and businesses to obtain this code to start a business that deals with import and export in the Indian Territory. It is not possible to deal with export or import business without this code. While exporting you get the following edge over others: Exposure to forex marketExposure to diversified cultureExposure to varied laws and legal formalitiesExposure to business risks which you must take up as a challenge Having businesses in various countries is better than having all businesses in one country. It saves you during periods of economic recession. You experience market growth by entering into different and new markets; Asian and European markets are flooded with traders from all around the world since these regions enjoy a locational advantage in the world map and well connected through the sea and land. RBI Policies: Exporters must be aware of the fact that RBI policies are very severe when it comes to foreign exchange. So you should have proper informational inputs from the correct source and your capital has to be invested accordingly. Slide Courtesy: Import and Export Policies and Procedures Exploring unfamiliar and exotic markets is very difficult as they are always dynamic. You should see to it that you keep yourself posted with updates on INTERNATIONAL FINANCE, LENDING RATES etc. Also Read: 10 key steps to export success You can make a small business big and beautiful by adding some flavor to it like, Right time to launch your product in the global scenario, People’s preference being given priority by doing some demographic survey, Attractive campaigns and of course Your unendurable passion for business will do the rest to make your venture a successful one. Read...
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Finance

Capital Structure – Debt vs Equity Financial Markets – Instruments and Securities
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Product Innovation

Product Innovation
The Realm of Product Innovation A manufacturer or a service provider, who aspires to be successful in a business market, must indulge himself in research, pertaining to consumer preference as well as the various stages of a product life cycle. This will give him a better chance to make his future decisions concerning the product and also the wisdom to evolve strategies accordingly. Developing a product and introducing it into the market demands certain amount of forethought and prudence. The first step is to study the market, to understand consumer preference as well as to gauge whether your product will be appealing to the customers existing in that market. The prerequisite for this would be market segmentation, that is to statistically estimate the demographic quotient (people belonging to different age groups and ethnic societies) of the sample population and decide on the customers whom you want to target. A product’s success depends mainly on two things: 1) Innovation-lateral thinking, by which you let loose of all your unorthodox methods and stick onto some novel ideas of marketing. 2) Customer-oriented marketing rather than product oriented. This customer oriented concept is advocated by modern marketing consultants and it has proven to be a fantastic proposition. More than the actual product, people like to know more about the values that they obtain out of that product. The secret behind success will be to hit the right note, by propagating more about the value added services that go with the product. Expectations Created by the Product When a product is introduced in a market, say, automobiles for example, since every tom, dick and harry is fond of cars and bikes and they talk a lot about it. It is looked upon by prospective customers with great expectations, which might be due to the great hype created by the manufacturer through advertisements in electronic media, papers and magazines. The product as it hits the market will instantaneously make it big, if it has the right mix of intangible and augmented benefits that make customers happy and they feel that they have bought something worth the money paid for. A luxury car is well received by the market, irrespective of the price tag that is stuck to it, just because of the value added benefits such as, delicacy, great speed, high-performance, safety, insurance and warranty. Product Pre-Launch Analysis Before launching a product, industry analysis is a must, as various similar products might exist and it comes to the question of how different and appealing your product is, for market acceptance. Even minor things can make a big difference, say, for instance, if you are able to float the cheapest car, in terms of price but with great fuel efficiency, the results are obvious. The strategy would be to introduce innovations not only in your product but also in your thinking. Best products emerge as a result of tuning in your wavelength with that of the consumers’. Product Life Cycle A product gets introduced, grows, matures, stabilises and slowly withers off, just like a human being. No man is eternal and so is a product. You may argue that some products are in the limelight for more than their share of lifetime. If you keenly observe, that would have been the result of makeover changes to the product in lieu of the change in people’s liking and analysis of market trend. Some products have a second chance to prove their mettle. They go into hibernation for a while and then re-enter when market conditions seems to be favorable. The perspective from which you look at the life cycle of a product may cast a different idea...
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Product Forecasting

Product Forecasting
Product Forecasting – An Analogy What is Product Forecasting: It is the science of predicting the degree of success a new product will enjoy in the marketplace. Forecasting is said to be the first and foremost step in the planning process. One of the requirements for effective long-term planning by managers is to assess the changes in technology and environmental conditions that could affect the firm. This is termed as environmental scanning which facilitates the firm to benchmark its performance as against the top industry standards. Technological forecasting involves anticipating development of new products and processes and the time taken for such kind of innovations to be accepted and absorbed in the market. External Environmental Scanning: Environmental forecasts focus on factors such as population growth, availability of resources, social and political trends that may affect the firm’s future. Business firms become more informative on, The percentage of market share for existing products of the firm Future demand for its product range Decline in sales proportions Consumer feedback about product performance Customer satisfaction Sales team performance level Pitfalls in marketing strategies Need for new product development Unidentified customer needs and so on  All predictive activity is subject to error, but technological and environmental forecasting is particularly different because they often involve assessing ideas and relationship that do not exist at the time the analysis is being performed. These forecasts are best suited for predicting performance a year or two in the future. Plan of Future Course of Action: Based on forecasting, the firm decides the future course of action. Sales forecasts help the firm to decide on the volume of production for the next few months and aid in aggregate capacity planning. Labor productivity is a crucial factor in determining the success of a business environment, especially a production environment. Manpower planning is purely based on production forecasts where in, the labor hour productivity is also taken into consideration. Forecasting Techniques: In the absence of empirical data, the forecasts must be based on expert opinions. Techniques like Delphi method can be used for this purpose. A group of experts is asked to assess a particular situation, presented with the judgments of others in the group, and then asked to reevaluate their individual positions based on what they have heard. The process continues until a consensus is arrived or until it is apparent that there will be no consensus. This helps the firm to consolidate its position with respect to specific problem situations. The Delphi method has been successfully used to forecast the nature and timing of technological change. Techniques like Delphi and Brain storming also help in the process of identification of bottlenecks, the current business trend, the firm’s future prospects, range of estimates for the desired breakthroughs etc. Although the pattern of a business cycle or a product cycle for the most part, follows a fairly predictable pattern, the firm cannot overlook probabilities, upon which the firm has to capitalize on. The firm has to become alert and employ some innovations at that point of time, when the market becomes saturated. Or else, the rate of growth declines and the firm has to decide whether to continue with the operations which calls for additional investment or close down the...
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