It all began with ADAM SMITH (1776), the Scottish economist when he lashed out against the abuses of monopoly and mercantilism.
He highlighted that productivity was a result of specialization, division of work and exchange. We witness the evidence of managerial practices right from the Sumerian age as early as 5000 B.C., from their written records to administer the governmental and commercial activities.
|5000 B.C||SUMERIANS||RECORD KEEPING|
|4000 B.C||EGYPTIANS||PLANNING,ORGANISING AND CONTROLLING|
|1800||ELI WHITNEY||MASS PRODUCTION MADE POSSIBLE|
|1822||CHARLES BABBAGE||PRODUCED DIFFERENCE MACHINE,A FORERUNNER OF TODAY’S COMPUTER|
|1916||HENRI FAYOL||MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS|
|1943||ABRAHAM MASLOW||MOTIVATION MODEL|
|1954||PETER DRUCKER||POPULARISED MBO-MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES|
|1961||RENSIS LIKERT||CONTINGENCY LEADERSHIP|
Management is as old as civilization and it is a separate entity by itself. The full boom of management was witnessed with the advent of INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION in Europe in the late 18th century.
There was mass exodus of people to urban cities in search of jobs due to mechanisation and there arose a necessity to manage people.
Initially they were treated as slaves by the owners but later the link factor called “Managers” came into the picture to negotiate and solve issues between the union and management.
He introduced a system of open rating for workers’ work on a daily basis. He insisted that improving the lives of the working individuals through labor welfare measures was the only way to increase productivity.
He was a visionary who could foresee scientific management. His difference engine or the modern day computer has made people’s lives easy and has replaced manual operations with machines.
Captain Henry Metcalfe:
Fredrick Winslow Taylor:
Founder of scientific management and is called the “Father of scientific management.”
He emphasized on the need for management planning and standardization of tools and materials, the former to gauge the capability of men and machine and the latter to save time and increase productivity.
He was one of the founders of “Time and Motion study.”
His theory was based on the following assumptions:
· Production planning and control is the main function of an organization
· Insisted on functional foremanship
· Time study as the basis for arriving standard time
· Standardisation of all tools and parts
· The use of ‘slide-rules’ and similar time saving implements
· Inroduced ‘time-cards’ for workmen
· The ‘differential rate system of wages
He proposed the Gantt Chart, a visual method to compare production output with time it took to complete a task. This is considered to be a forerunner of today’s PERT-PROGRAMME EVALUATION and REVIEW TECHNIQUE).
He also developed
· Work quota systems
· Bonus systems for workers or managers
· To ensure continuous employment opportunities for the work force
· To gauge market tendencies
· To render workers a high standard of living; this motivates them to contribute more
· To increase the income of the workers
· To assure a socially agreeable condition of working environment
· Proper selection, training, assignment, transfer and promotion of workers
· To develop self-confidence and self-respect among workers through opportunity and participation
· To promote justice through elimination of discrimination in wage-rates
· To eliminate causes of friction and to promote understanding, tolerance and the spirit of team-work-Espirit de corps.