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# How to Pep-Up Productivity?

Productivity Analysis: Productivity is defined in terms of utilization of resources, like material and labor or it is the ratio of output to input. For example, productivity of labor can be measured as units produced per labor hour worked. It is closely associated with quality, technology and profitability. Now you will be able to understand why there is a strong emphasis on productivity improvement in a competitive business environment. It can be calculated at firm level, at industry level, at national level and at international level. That is what we call as GDP, NDP, and PPP. Gross Domestic Product – ‘GDP’: The monetary value of all the finished goods and services produced within a country’s borders in a specific time period, though GDP is usually calculated on an annual basis. Net Domestic Product – ‘NDP’:  An annual measure of the economic output of a nation that is adjusted to account for depreciation, calculated by subtracting depreciation from the gross domestic product (GDP). Purchasing Power Parity – ‘PPP’:  An economic theory that estimates the amount of adjustment needed on the exchange rate between countries in order for the exchange to be equivalent to each currency’s purchasing power. Efficiency can be improved by (a) Controlling inputs, (b) Improving process so that the same input yields higher output, and (c) By improvement of technology. Factor Productivity: When it is measured individually for each input resource to the production process it is called factor or partial productivity. Total Productivity: When it is measured for all the factors of production together, it is called total factor productivity. What are the types of Productivity Analysis? 1. Trend analysis: Studying productivity changes for the firm over a period of time. 2. Horizontal analysis: Studying efficiency in comparison with other firms of same size and involved in similar business. 3. Vertical analysis: Studying output in comparison with other industries and other firms of different sizes in the same industry. 4. Budgetary analysis: Setting up a norm for productivity for a future period as budget and planning strategies to achieve it. FACTORS AFFECTING PRODUCTIVITY 1. Capital/labor ratio: It is a measure of whether enough investment is being made in plant, machinery, and tools to make effective use of labor hours. 2. Scarcity of some resources: Resources such as energy, water and number of metals will create problems. 3. Work-force changes: Change in work-force affect productivity to a larger extent, because of the labor turnover. 4. Innovations and technology: This is the major cause of increasing productivity problems. 5. Regulatory effects: These impose substantial limitations on some firms. 6. Bargaining power: Bargaining power of organized labor to command wage has a detrimental effect. 7. Managerial factors: The planning and strategic skills of a manager play a big role in boosting the productivity of an organization. 8. Quality of work life: It is a term that describes the organizational culture, and the extent to which it motivates and satisfies employees. Here are the top 10 productivity killers in the workplace you’ll want to watch out for: 1. Cell phone/texting 2. Gossip 3. The internet 4. Social media 5. Snack breaks or smoke breaks 6. Noisy coworkers 7. Meetings 8. Email 9. Coworkers dropping by 10. Coworkers putting calls on...

# Real Estate Investment

These article-embeds focus on the real estate scenario both in the US and India and how relaxation in Foreign Direct Investment Policies has brought about a sea change in the minds of foreign investors on viewing India as one of the major sources of potential investment. And most importantly real estate in India is in a boom thanks to the constant urbanization and interest of NRI people who want to invest in properties in big Indian cities like Mumbai, Cochin, Pune, Bangalore and Chennai. Some light is also thrown on how to handle the capital gains when a property is sold. One has to be aware of the tax implications that arise while selling a property and the proceeds have to be properly accounted for. Real Estate looks enterprising in India and always has been so since people of our country treat land and gold as dependable assets. Owning a house or a property is a status symbol too and people save money to buy land and build their dream houses. This saving tendency has supported the growth of our economy very well and has rather saved it from tumbling down unlike what happened in the recent recession in the US. Some Interesting Real Estate Quotes to keep you in Good Humor: “It is a comfortable feeling to know that you stand on your own ground. Land is about the only thing that can’t fly away.” ~Anthony Trollope “The best investment on earth is earth.” ~Louis Glickman “He is not a full man who does not own a piece of land.” ~Hebrew Proverb “A man complained that on his way home to dinner he had every day to pass through that long field of his neighbor’s.  I advised him to buy it, and it would never seem long again.” ~Ralph Waldo Emerson “As long as you have more cash flowing in than flowing out, your investment is a good investment.” Robert Kiyosaki Read and enjoy the following articles: What To Expect From The Real Estate Market In 2014 Focus of Overseas Investors on Indian Real Estate Market How to save capital gain taxes in real estate? UDEMY, the educational platform is offering real estate courses at a big discount and I reckon the following courses would help real estate brokers and agents to hone their skills in terms of online presence and marketing. Gain Leads and Colleagues with a Real Estate Website/Blog Creative Real Estate Investing & Flipping...