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Why Financial Capability Matters?

Why Financial Capability Matters?
What is Financial Capability? The availability, usage and #management of funds have a bearing on the financial capability of an organization and ability to implement its strategies. A financial manager has to pool, deploy and allocate #financial resources taking into consideration the capital or long term investments, working capital or short-term liabilities and repayment capacities. Factors that influence financial capability of an organization: 1. Factors related to #source of funds: Capital structure, procurement of capital, controllership, financing pattern, working capital availability, borrowing, capital and credit availability, reserves and surplus, and relationship with lenders, banks and #financial institutions. 2. Factors related to #usage of funds: Capital investment, fixed asset acquisition, current assets, loans and advances, dividend distribution and relationship with #shareholders. 3. Factors related to #management of funds: Financial #accounting and #budgeting systems, management control system, state of financial health, cash, inflation, return and #risk management, cost reduction and control, and #tax planning and advantages. Typical Strengths that Support Financial Capability: • Access to financial resources • Amicable relationship with financial institutions • High level of credit worthiness • Efficient capital budgeting system • Low cost of capital as compared to competitors • High level of shareholder’s confidence • Effective management control system • Tax benefits due to various #government policies The examples given below show how strengths and weakness affect the financial capability of organizations: • A company faced many problems due to instability in the top management, an unfavorable public image, unfavorable government relations etc., but it had inherent strengths like a huge amount- to the tune of Rs.1000 crores invested in fixed assets which the company used for funding its diversification plans. Here we see one particular strength over-shadowing all other weaknesses which can be rectified in due course of time. • A scooter company had collected nearly Rs.1150 crores as advance for booking of scooters, but within five years, its cash position deteriorated owing to sudden and unforeseen cancellation of bookings and withdrawal of deposits, resulting in a huge interest burden. Had the company had a strong financial backup, it would have survived the trouble. Matching strengths and weaknesses with #opportunities and threats requires that a firm should direct its strengths towards exploiting opportunities and blocking threats while minimizing exposure of its weaknesses at the same...
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Turnover Ratio or Asset Management Ratio

Turnover Ratio or Asset Management Ratio
TURNOVER RATIO OR ACTIVITY RATIO  or  ASSET MANAGEMENT RATIO Turnover ratios are also known as activity ratios or efficiency ratios with which a firm manages its current assets.  The following turnover ratios can be calculated to judge the effectiveness of asset use. Inventory Turnover Ratio Debtor Turnover Ratio Creditor Turnover Ratio Assets Turnover Ratio  1.  INVENTORY TURNOVER RATIO This ratio indicates whether investment in stock is efficiently used or not, in other words, the number of times the inventory has been converted into sales during the period.  Thus it evaluates the efficiency of the firm in managing its inventory. It helps the financial manager to evaluate the inventory policy.  It is calculated by dividing the cost of goods sold by average inventory. Inventory Turnover Ratio = Cost of goods sold / Average Inventory (or) Net Sales / Average Stock  Cost of goods sold = Sales-Gross profit Average Stock =Opening stock + Closing stock/2  2.  DEBTOR TURNOVER RATIO Debtors play a vital role in current assets and to a great extent determines the liquidity of a firm. This indicates the number of times average debtors have been converted into cash during a year.  It is determined by dividing the net credit sales by average debtors. Debtor Turnover Ratio = Net Credit Sales / Average Trade Debtors (or) Net Credit Sales / Average Debtors – Average Bills Receivable Net credit sales = Total sales – (Cash sales + Sales return) Total debtors = [ Op.Dr. + Cl.Dr. / 2 + Op.B/R + Cl. B/R / 2]   When the information about credit sales, opening and closing balances of trade debtors is not available then the ratio can be calculated by dividing total sales by closing balances of trade debtor Debtor Turnover Ratio = Total Sales / Trade Debtors Note: Bad and doubtful doubts and their provisions are not deducted from the total debtors. The higher ratio indicates that debts are being collected promptly. 3.  CREDITOR TURNOVER RATIO This is also known as “Creditors Velocity”. It indicates the number of times sundry creditors have been paid during a year.  It is calculated to judge the requirements of cash for paying sundry creditors.  It is calculated by dividing the net credit purchases by average creditors. Creditor Turnover Ratio = Net Credit Purchases / Average Trade Creditor (or) Net Credit Purchases / Average Creditors + Average Bills Payable Net credit purchases = Total purchases – (Cash purchase + Purchase return) Total Creditors = [Op.Cr. + Cl.Cr. / 2 + Op. B/P + Cl. B/P / 2]   The higher ratio should indicate that the payments are made promptly. Net credit purchases consist of gross credit purchases minus purchase return.  When the information about credit purchases, opening and closing balances of trade creditors is not available then the ratio is calculated by dividing total purchases by the closing balance of trade creditors. Creditor Turnover Ratio = Total purchases / Total Trade Creditors  4.  ASSETS TURNOVER RATIO The relationship between assets and sales is known as assets turnover ratio.  Several assets turnover ratios can be calculated depending upon the groups of assets, which are related to sales. a)      Total asset turnover. b)      Net asset turnover c)      Fixed asset turnover d)      Current asset turnover e)      Net working capital turnover ratio a. TOTAL ASSET TURNOVER This ratio shows the firms ability to generate sales from all financial resources committed to total assets.  It is calculated by dividing sales by total assets. Total asset turnover = Total Sales /  Total Assets b. NET ASSET TURNOVER This is calculated by dividing sales by net assets. Net asset turnover =Total Sales / Net Assets Net assets represent total assets minus current liabilities. Intangible and fictitious assets like goodwill, patents, accumulated losses, deferred expenditure may be excluded for...
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