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Training Programme Evaluation

Training Programme Evaluation
 The process of Training Programme Evaluation Evaluation of training programme is basically critical examination of appraisal of training programmers. Appraisal of training programme is necessary for improvement and evaluation is a continuous process. “Learning from mistakes” and transforming them into experience and knowledge is the crux of training evaluation. Areas of Evaluation: The participant’s opinion about the programme Knowledge, attitude, skills learned during the training sessions Behavioral change, if any, as a result of training Pay off and benefits that accrue to the organization resulting from the change in behavior of the trainees. What should the evaluation process consider in the planning stage? Attributes of training programme to be evaluated Standard for evaluation Measuring various aspects of the programme and feedback on the effectiveness of the same Implementation of the programme results Scrutinizing the changes that need to be done in the training session Method of dealing with the change – Who will do it, how will the changes be made, how quickly the changes can be implemented. Steps in the Evaluation Process: Establish acceptable standards and bench marking Data collection Analysis of data, interpretation and drawing conclusions Feedback of the results 1. Establish acceptable standards Standards may be set in any one of the following methods; Setting standards through best practice Setting standards through bench marking 2. Data Collection Data may be collected using any one of the following techniques: Questionnaire Interview Written Test Observation 3. Analysis of Data and Interpretation Raw data should be tabulated – Histogram and frequency distribution yield basic information on the shape of dispersal of data around the mean and standard deviation. Relevant statistical tools must be employed depending upon the purpose of evaluation. 4. Evaluating and Feedback The steps involved in this process are: Design valuation – Includes clear objectives backed up by proper content Evaluation of content – Value and usefulness of the programme content may be measured by seeing the reaction of the trainees. An animated discussion in the classroom is a clear indication of the value the content offers. Usefulness may be known by interviewing the trainees and by comparing the performance impact of training with individual job descriptions. Evaluating the presenters – By taking feedback from the trainees the training quality of the presenter or lecturer may be evaluated. Evaluation of trainees – Three aspects that have to be considered on the part of the trainees are, feeling and opinion, learning and attitudinal changes. Evaluating on the job results and productivity changes – A number of factors affect productivity and pre and post measurement of some of the below mentioned aspects shall throw light on the effect of the training programme. Factors affecting Productivity: Cost Reduction ,grievance reduction, productivity after versus before training, work quality, quantitative results, accident rates, absenteeism, employee suggestions, supervisory rating, profits, sales volume, turnover rates, customer complaints, worker efficiency, training time required for proficiency, cost per untrained employee, new product development, new customers and public relations. Behavioral Factors: Some of the specific behavioral changes listed as follows can be observed before and after the training programme – application of new knowledge, use of new skills, high standards, courtesy, adherence to safety regulations, teamwork, perseverance, honesty, co-operation, quality of work, punctuality, effort, initiative. Useful Information:  Sample Training Evaluation Questionnaire 5 evaluation methods to evaluate staff training...
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Business Policies-Guidelines to Attain Goals

Business Policies-Guidelines to Attain Goals
Business Policies – Framing and Execution Business policies are the keystone in the arch of management and the life-blood for the successful functioning of business, because without well-laid down policies, there cannot be lasting improvements in the economic condition of the firm and labor-management relations. A policy is a positive declaration and a command to its followers. It translates the goals of an organization into selected routes and provides the general guidelines that prescribe and proscribe programmes, which in turn, dictate practices and procedure. Attainment of Objectives: Buisness policies are general statement of principles for the attainment of objectives which serve as a guide to action for the executives at different levels of management. They pave a broad way in which the sub-ordinates tread along towards accomplishing their objectives.     Hierarchy: For each set of objectives at each level, there is a corresponding set of policies. The Board of Directors determine the basic overall corporate policies The top management decides on the executive corporate policies Managers decide on the departments / divisional policies Middle managers handle  the sectional policies     Consistent Decisions contributing to the Objectives: The policies delimit the area within which a decision has to be made; however, they do allow some discretion on the part of the man on the firing line, otherwise, they would be mere rules.   At the same time too much of discretion in policy matters may prove harmful to the accomplishment of organizational objectives and hence it is generally within limits.   Mutual Application: Policies in general are meant for mutual application by sub ordinates. They are fabricated to suit a specific situation in which they are applied, for they cannot apply themselves.   Unified Structure: Policies tend to predefine issues, avoid repeated analysis and give a unified structure to other types of plans, thus permitting managers to delegate authority while maintaining control.   Policies for all Functional Areas: In a well-structured and managed organization, policies are framed for all functional levels of management. Corporate planning Marketing Research and Development Engineering Manufacturing Inventory Purchase Physical Distribution Accounting Finance Costing Advertising Personal Selling Special Promotion, are some areas that require clear-cut policies.   Clear-Cut Guidelines:im,ii  Policies serve an extremely useful purpose in that they avoid confusion and provide clear-cut guidelines. This enables the business to be carried on smoothly and often without break. They lead to better and maximum utilization of resources, human, financial and physical, by adhering to actions for conservation. The HR Quote Book – 55 All Time Popular HR Quotes Top Motivational Quotes For HR Professionals… Quotes to keep your employees motivated (and to keep you sane). Use these popular and handy HR Quotes in your blogs, books, journals, presentations, tweets, facebook posts, pinterest boards and instagram posts. Lots of illustrations included…. Don’t miss the free PPT on Coaching and...
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Contributions of Entrepreneurs to the Society

Contributions of Entrepreneurs to the Society
Contributions of Entrepreneurs to Boost Productivity Productivity Accelerators: Entrepreneurship raises productivity through technical and other forms of innovation. Entrepreneurs as risk bearers find resources and fill market gaps that would be missed by larger, more bureaucratic organizations. They allow a country to extract every last bit of marginal capacity out of whatever resources exist within the society. Brilliant Tips on Productivity by some Popular Entrepreneurs: Focus on one thing at a time: It may seem like a no-brainer, but multitasking can actually cut back on your productivity. Instead of juggling multiple projects at once, schedule out blocks of time — or even entire days — during which you only focus on one task or one project. Steph Auteri, @stephauteri, Word Nerd Pro Outsource, outsource, outsource: Everything may be a priority, but you are not equally brilliant at everything. Eliminate the unnecessary tasks and outsource your weaknesses so your time and focus is directed to where you’ll make the biggest impact for the business. Kelly Azevedo, @krazevedo, She’s Got Systems Define roles and divide work: Make sure everyone on the team has distinct roles defined, and divide work accordingly. Everyone on a proactive team will want to do everything, and clearly defined roles make it clear who should do what. David Gardner, @david_gardner, ColorJar Job Creators: It is a powerful tool of job creation -Entrepreneurship as a whole contributes to social wealth by creating new markets, new industries, new technology, new institutional forms, new jobs and net increases in real productivity. The jobs constructed through their activities in turn lead to equitable distribution of income which leads to higher standards of living for the population. Entrepreneurship facilitates the transfer of technology. Entrepreneurs play a strategic role in commercializing new inventions and products. They play a critical role in the restructuring and transformation of economy. Their behavior breathes vitality into the life of large corporations and governmental enterprises.  Market Competitiveness: They make the markets more competitive and thereby reduce both static and dynamic market inefficiencies. Micro-preneurs working in the informal sector circumvent established government authority when governments and their programmes inhibit economic development. They stimulate redistribution of wealth, income and political power within societies in ways that are economically positive and without being politically disruptive. Social Welfare: They improve social welfare of a country harnessing dormant, previously overlooked talent. They create new markets and help in expansion into international markets. The unique feature of entrepreneurship – that it is a low cost strategy of economic development, job creation and technical innovations. Technology Innovation: In recent years China has become a chief contributor to world economic development. China is efficient-driven economy, not yet an innovation based economy. China seeks to become a world leader in science, technology and innovation within the next few decades. In addition to the role technology entrepreneurship has in moving China’s economy towards innovation-based economy, technology entrepreneurship is also important for sustainable development as Nobel Prize Laureate prof. Dan Schechtman puts it: “Technological entrepreneurship is a key to the well-being of the world”. India has been the first among the few developing countries to have assigned a significant and categorical state role to small scale industries from the first Five Year Plan itself, and the small scale sector has emerged as a dynamic and vibrant sector of the economy during the eighties. If the country develops pucca infrastructure and removes the hurdles in the operative environment politically and legally, no doubt the Indian economy will be scaling to greater heights. Surplus manpower (educated and un-educated), which has been a great liability can become an asset once those with potential are selectively groomed for self-employment and enterprise formation, leading to further job opportunities. Loading… You...
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De-Stressing the Self

De-Stressing the Self
De-Stressing the Self India often looks at Japanese or American models to comprehend the concepts of management. In reality, Indian scriptures can be considered as treasuries of management. The Bhagavat Gita, the Vedas and the Epics highlight the true spirit of working together and the need for de-stressing the self for enhanced performance levels. The idea of NISHKAMYAM (to perform one’s own work without expecting a result) is truly said to be the highest ideology preached by Lord Krishna. Stress Management: 40+ easy ways to deal with stress What Induces Stress? A dynamic condition in which an individual is presented with an opportunity or confronted with a demand, related to what she or he desires and for which the outcome is uncertain but important, can be called a stressful situation. The consequences of stress in an organizational set up express themselves in the form of physiological, psychological or behavioral symptoms, which are harmful to the individuals who experience high levels of stress. Symptoms of stress: Anxiety Depression Increased job dissatisfaction Absenteeism Decline in productivity Rapid turn over High blood pressure Heart diseases Head aches Stress Can be Motivating: While long term stress is harmful to the individual and organization as well, it is said that short term stress serves the purpose of task accomplishment by individuals or groups, within the stipulated time. It serves as a motivation factor rather than a causative agent of frustration. It has been proved by scientists and medical researchers that stress has a direct effect on the metabolism of a person, that causes increase in heart and breathing rates, increase in blood pressure, thus inducing heart attacks. Equally important are the behavioral and attitudinal changes that are created by stress, which cannot be overlooked. Job Satisfaction: Psychological symptoms arise due to job-related dissatisfaction, boredom, work pressure, irritability and procrastination. Sometimes forceful involvement may also lead to decreased job satisfaction. The job to be carried out can be finished at the particular time if the individual is able to give one’s best shot. But when it is performed under stress, they complete the job with dissatisfaction. When the incumbent is asked to perform a task that lacks clarity, naturally ambiguity arises in his mind followed by anxiety. Behavioral Symptoms of Stress Changes in productivity levels, absence, and rapid staff turnover are stress symptoms of behavioral nature. It might be expressed even in the form of increased smoking, consumption of alcohol etc., Say for instance, in production department, when there is a need to supply a product in a very limited time, the workers may be active initially, but the performance slows down when they get totally tired or dissatisfied with the work. Again the demand by the superior adds additional stress that reaches unmanageable levels. Similarly, people taking care of administration, banking, marketing and other office related works fall a prey to stress. How to manage stress? From an organization view point, it is believed that a limited amount of stress may work wonders in terms of performance, with stress acting as a “positive stimulus”. But even low levels of stress are likely to be perceived as undesirable from an individual’s stand point. How could be the notion of management and individuals be different on the acceptable levels of stress? It does not solve the purpose. Individuals have to understand that, they have to live up to the expectations of the management in order to enhance their credit ratings, in terms of promotion and pay. They have to understand that challenges are to be perceived as opportunities to prove their mettle. Self and situational analysis, work analysis, time management and physical well- being are some...
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The Need of Math in Management

The Need of Math in Management
Operations Research-Emphasizing the need of Math in Management Business is all about “demand versus supply”. And as is always the case, industries operate in a tight situation, with limited resources and heavy demand, trying to make the ends meet. The production of required quantity with the available resources needs an approach that is quantitative and logical as well. This can be obtained by weighing the odds and choosing the right kind of decision that suits your business plan, be it production, distribution, marketing, selling or any business situation, where there is a need to compare and contrast between alternating decisions, to arrive at an optimal solution. High end mathematical concepts in Operations: Operations research comes into the picture in such situations, wherein, high end mathematical concepts and models are applied to problem situations, to first define the problem and then extract the best possible solution by quantifying the resources available. Quantitative data is then converted into linear equations to maximize the productivity and profit. Profit maximization is generally aimed by most of the firms that operate with limited potential and operations research helps to achieve this through optimal use of the available resources. Application of Scientific Methods: The emphasis is on application of scientific methods, use of quantitative data, goals and objectives and determination of the best means to reach them. Once the data is collected, it is carefully evaluated and the relationship among data is established, which helps in defining the problems and goals. The problem is represented logically to decide the course of action. Say, for example, Linear Programming represents each and every problem situation in the form of a linear equation and tries to allocate resources in an optimal fashion. Alternate decisions are evaluated and the decision that yields the best result in terms of productivity and profit is considered. Measure of Effectiveness: How do you measure profit? The measure of effectiveness will be determining the rate of return on investment, and every possible solution can be weighed against this measure. Theories of probability are also used to predict the success rate of the combinations of variables executed in different ways. But one has to understand that only some variables are controllable and others are not. Say, if the economy experiences inflation or recession, your predictions will undergo a drastic review in purview of the fluctuations in the economy. Similarly availability of labor is always a constraint, either labor is not available or they demand more pay. Simplex Methods: Since voluminous data is involved, computers with multi processors are used to manipulate the data. Mathematical tools like simplex methods, integer programming, graphical methods, transportation and assignment techniques, simulations, game theory and queuing theory can be very well applied to solve complex problem situations with ease. Today’s business world demands more sophistication in terms of technical updations. Evolution of Opeartions Research Techniques: Operations Research dates back to the Second World War period, and the accelerated growth of this discipline in recent years can be attributed to the fact that, researchers have found this useful in solving economic and political problems too. At the same time, critics point out that, application of operations research proves advantageous only to those people who are accustomed to the usage of rapid computing machines and understand the complex mathematical formulae and relationships. Note: Energy: The oil industry was one of the earlier users of operations research techniques to help manage their refinery processes, and operations research technologies are heavily used by all the major oil companies. Manufacturing: Manufacturing organizations continue to use operations research to optimize factory operations. Transportation: Operations researchers execute logistics for air traffic control, trucking, and railroads. Real-time dispatching and delivery truck...
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