Training and development is an important aspect of human resource development. However the traditional methods and approach of T&D has its own limitations in that the focus is on individual development and behavior modification. This has seldom produced organizational development and hence in 1960’s an integrated approach called the ‘OD’ or organizational development was developed.
OD is the systematic application of behavioral science knowledge for the purpose of improving productivity, efficiency, effectiveness and overall health of the total organization. The applied interventions attempt to modify the beliefs, assumptions, values, attitudes and standards of both the individuals and groups thereby transforming the organizational culture for the betterment of system as a whole.
FEATURES OF ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT:
RENSIS LIKERT’S OD FRAMEWORK:
Rensis Likert’s 4 system OD framework aims at moving towards truly participative system. Care and caution must be adhered to steer the system gradually from where the organization now works. He also introduced diagnostic analysis to find what causes the current problem. His three part diagnostic analysis includes:
A. OUTPUT CAUSES: Low productivity, absenteeism, declining profit
B. INTERVENING CAUSES: Organization structure, control, policy and leadership
C. ROOT CAUSES: Attitude, motivation level, empowerment and organization culture
“The OD paradigm values human and organizational growth, collaborative and participative processes and a spirit of enquiry.” Brown and Covey have made some attempts to identify OD values from the following:
Norms and Values:
Power Equalization: This emphasizes hierarchical authority, control and centralization.
Confrontation: Do not hide problem under the carpet; instead face them squarely how-ever unpleasant they may be.
Participation: Involving people in decision-making will resolve problem situations in a jiffy
THE ASSUMPTIONS AND BELIEFS OF OD:
1. Employees have much to offer
2. They indeed look for an opportunity to contribute
3. They are duty bound, mature and want growth
1. Groups have powerful influence on the individuals
2. Groups and teams are inevitable to an organization’s success
3. Skill are to be developed to play complex roles in groups
1. Complex structure, excessive control, rules and regulations mar the development of an organization
2. Organization can only gain from properly channeled conflicts
3. Goal congruence is possible between individual and organizational goals.