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Social Responsibilities of Business

Social Responsibilities of Business
Social Responsibilities of Business According to Raymond Bauer, “Social responsibility is seriously considering the impact of the company’s actions on the society. It may also refer to the person’s obligation to evaluate in the decision making process, the effects of both his personal and institutional decisions and actions on the whole system, according to Keith Davis and Cobert Blomstorm. A) SOCIAL OBJECTIVES OF BUSINESS: 1. The focus should be on quality, safety, service and security which lead to customer satisfaction. Quality– Product superiority and durability Safety– Products should not cause any harm to the consumers Service– After sales service is the link that builds a long standing relationship between the company and customers Security– Sense of satisfaction and belief on the company’s brand  2. The business has social responsibility of giving adequate opportunities to the members of the society. If everybody aims at white collar job, how does a nation grow economically? Developing economies should promote and encourage entrepreneurs to create more “Job Opportunities.” This especially suits countries like India and China where the pressure of population is very high.  3. Mass production facilitates in factorizing the economy of scale and at the same time aids in providing with quality goods at reasonable prices to the consumers. We see big chain of retail shops like Cosco and Wal-Mart in the US have made this possible where consumers can avail discount for bulk purchase. In India, Big Bazaar is a forerunner in this kind of retail marketing which enhances the material well being of a community and raises the average standard of living of the people. 4. Another main objective of business would be to control the percentage of pollution in air, water and land. Discharge of effluent in a lake or a river by the industrial enterprise may result in water pollution and also affects the plant, animal life and fish and birds to a considerable extent. Stringent laws must be in place to avoid such incidences and protect the society. B) RESPONSIBILITY TO CONSUMERS There is only one valid definition of business purpose: “to create a customer”, the customer is the foundation of a business and keeps it in existence. The responsibilities of a business towards its customers would be: · Increased productivity in order to make goods available for the consumers at the right time at right prices; this solely depends upon the increased efficiency of functioning of the business · Constantly strive to improve the quality of goods · R & D to improve product quality and to come out with better and new products · Proper distribution structure to reach even the remotest of locations · Remove hoarding, black marketing, profiteering by middlemen or anti-social elements · Provide them with the required after sales service · Ensure that the product supplied has no adverse effect · Sufficient information about the product has to be given to the consumers regarding the adverse effects and precautions to be taken while      using the product · No misleading product information through improper advertisements or otherwise · To provide an opportunity for being heard and to redress consumer grievances Consumer courts are becoming popular in India for handling consumer grievances swiftly and efficiently. It is but a sad thing that many people do not know that they can address issues relating to quality, quantity or service.The businesses should understand the consumer needs and take necessary measures to satisfy those needs.  C) REPONSIBILITY TO THE COMMUNITY  · To prevent environmental pollution and to preserve the ecobalance · Assisting in the overall development of a locality · Use alternate energy resources · Contributing to research and development · Rehabilitate the...
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Motivation- Process and Theories

Motivation- Process and Theories
Motivation- Process and Theories “We can take a horse to water but cannot make it to drink”, so goes a saying. A motive is the inner drive or desire that causes a person to act. What is the importance of motivation in management? Well, I will say motivation is “the thing” and understanding human motivation is crucial in managing people. Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory with 10 Free Motivational Quotes Some definitions on motivation: 1. This is a total system of study which analyses human needs, motives, drives which cause a person to act or behave in a particular manner he/she does. 2. It is the stimulation of any emotion or desire operating upon one’s will and prompting or driving it to action-Guillerman 3.”Motivation represents a satisfied need which creates a state of tension or dis-equilibrium causing the individual to move in a goal directed pattern towards restoring a state of equilibrium by satisfying the needs.”-Herzberg It has been accepted by psychologists world over that all behavior is motivated and revolves around a desire for satisfying certain needs. Motivation process:   NEEDS->DRIVES->GOALS THEORIES OF MOTIVATION:  Theories of Motivation are classified into · Content theories and · Process Theories CONTENT THEORIES: A. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs B. Herzberg two factor theory C. Theory ‘X’ and Theory ‘Y’ D. McClelland’s achievement motivation theory E. Clayton Alderfer’s ERG theory PROCESS THEORIES: A. Vroom’s expectancy model B. Porter-Lawler’s model C. Adam’s equity theory Content theories seek to determine what motivates people at work. Priorities are taken into consideration backed up by incentives or goals. Maslow Need Hierarchy Theory (1943) Abraham Maslow postulates that human needs can be organized into a hierarchy of prepotency with the physiological needs at the bottom and self-actualization at the top. He states that as each need gets satisfied the person gets motivated to reach the next higher level. As the person moves up the hierarchy, one finds that esteem needs and self-actualization are more of internal in nature and it solely depends on the individual’s drive. Basic needs -85 % Security or safety needs-70% Social needs- 50% Esteem needs-40% Self-actualization-mere 10% This is the statistics that represents the percentage ratio of satisfaction and once a need is satisfied it “CEASES TO BE A MOTIVATOR.” · PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS-Basic needs for the maintenance of body processes such as hunger, thirst, sex and sleep. When these are satisfied, the higher order needs emerge, which dominate a person’s behavior. · SAFETY NEEDS– Needs like freedom from physical harm, need for orderly life and economic security · SOCIAL NEEDS– These emerge when the basic needs are satisfied and denote love, affection and belongingness. · ESTEEM NEEDS– Needs referring to strength, achievement, adequacy and also needs which pertain to recognition, appreciation and achievement. Man values self esteem based on one’s own abilities on one hand, and recognition and reputation on the other. · NEED FOR SELF–ACTUALISTION– When all the above mentioned needs are satisfied the need for self actualization arises. This need is described as the need to become everything that one is capable of becoming. CRITICISM: · There is little empirical evidence to support this theory though it is very popular. · This theory talks only about the needs from an individual’s perspective and does not link it with organizational...
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Objectives of Training

Objectives of Training
Objectives of Training The objectives of training is different according to the employees belonging to different levels of organization. The objectives depend on the nature of the organization where training has to be provided, the skills desired and the current skill levels.     1. To increase the knowledge of employees or workers in doing specific jobs. 2. To scientifically and systematically impart new skills to the human resources so that they learn quickly. 3. To bring about change in the attitudes of the workers towards fellow workers, supervisor and the organization. 4. To improve the overall performance of the organization. 5. To make the employees handle materials, machines and equipment efficiently and thus to avoid wastage of time and resources. 6. To reduce the number of accidents by providing safety training to employees. 7. To prepare employees for higher jobs by developing advanced skills in them. 8. The basic objective of training however is to establish a match between man and his job. 9. The training is designed to improve knowledge, skills and attitude and thus equip the individual to be more effective in his present job or prepare him for future assignments. From the point of view of an organization individual growth is a means to organized effectiveness.   The objectives of training can be summarized as follows: – 1. Induction : – Training constitutes a significant entry into the company’s way of life. Organizations have to provide induction training to all employees entering the organization to let them know, 1. What is company’s culture? 2. How does structure function? 3. What are policies & rules of organization? 4. What are designs of freedom or limits of behavior?  2.Updating :-A significant objectives of training is to prevent the Obsolescence of the employees by updating their skills & knowledge.  3.Preparing for future Assignments. 4.Improvement in Performance: Training will be an important aid to managers for developing themselves as well as their subordinates. It is not a substitute for development on the job, which comes from doing, experiencing, observing, giving and receiving feedback and coaching. Training can bring about an improvement in a person’s: Knowledge Skills Attitude, there by raising his potential to perform better on the job.  5. Growth Training is also focused towards developing people for higher levels of responsibility thereby reducing the need for recruiting people from outside. This would have the effect of improving the morale of the existing employees. 6.Organizational Effectiveness Training provides a means for bringing about organizational development. It can be used for strengthening values, building teams, improving inter-group relations and quality of work life. The ultimate objective of training in the long run is to improve the company’s performance through people performing...
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