# Solvency Ratio or Leverage Ratio

SOLVENCY OR LEVERAGE RATIOS Long-term solvency ratios analyze the long-term financial position of the organization. Bankers and creditors are interested in the liquidity of the firm, whereas shareholders, debenture holders and financial institutions are concerned with the long term prosperity of the firm. There are thus two aspects of the long-term solvency of a firm. Ability to repay the principal amount when due Regular payment of the interest.  The ratio is based on the relationship between borrowed funds and owner’s capital it is computed from the balance sheet, the second type is calculated from the profit and loss a/c.  The various solvency ratios are  Debt equity ratio Debt to total capital ratio Proprietary (Equity) ratio Fixed assets to net worth ratio Fixed assets to long term funds ratio Debt service (Interest coverage) ratio  1.  DEBT EQUITY RATIO OR EXTERNAL – INTERNAL EQUITY RATIO Debt equity ratio shows the relative claims of creditors (Outsiders) and owners (Interest) against the assets of the firm. The relationship between borrowed fund and capital is shown in debt-equity ratio. It can be calculated by dividing outsider funds (Debt) by shareholder funds (Equity)   Ebt equity ratio = Outsider Funds (Total Debts) /  Shareholder Funds or Equity (or) Long-term Debts / Shareholders funds  Shareholders fund = Preference capital + Equity capital + Reserves & Surplus – Goodwill & Preliminary expenses  Outsiders funds = Current liabilities + Debentures + Loans The ideal ratio is 2:1. High ratio means, the claim of creditors is greater than owners and vice-versa  2.  DEBT TO TOTAL CAPITAL RATIO Debt to total capital ratio =  Total Debts / Total Assets  3.  PROPRIETARY (EQUITY) RATIO This ratio indicates the proportion of total assets financed by owners.  It is calculated by dividing proprietor (Shareholder) funds by total assets. Proprietary (equity) ratio = Shareholder funds / Total Tangible assets The ideal ratio is 1:3. A ratio below 50% may be alarming for creditors, because they incur loss during winding up. 4.  FIXED ASSETS TO NET WORTH RATIO This ratio establishes the relationship between fixed assets and shareholder funds.  It is calculated by dividing fixed assets by shareholder funds. Fixed assets to net worth ratio =  Fixed Assets X 100 / Net Worth The shareholder funds include equity share capital, preference share capital, reserves and surplus including accumulated profits.  However fictitious assets like accumulated deferred expenses etc should be deducted from the total of these items to shareholder funds.  The shareholder funds so calculated are known as net worth of the business. 5.  FIXED ASSETS TO LONG TERM FUNDS RATIO Fixed assets to long term funds ratio establishes the relationship between fixed assets and long-term funds and is calculated by dividing fixed assets by long term funds. Fixed assets to long term funds ratio = Fixed Assets X 100 / Long-term Funds 6.  DEBT SERVICE (INTEREST COVERAGE) RATIO This shows the number of times the earnings of the firms are able to cover the fixed interest liability of the firm.  This ratio therefore is also known as Interest coverage or time interest earned ratio.  It is calculated by dividing the earnings before interest and tax (EBIT) by interest charges on loans. Debt Service Ratio = Earnings before interest and tax (EBIT) / Interest...

# Scope of Business Activity

How can we define Business? Business is an important institution in the society. Be it for the supply of goods and services; Creation of employment opportunities; Offering better quality of life; Contribution to the economic growth of a country; the role of business is crucial. The subject of business is as interesting as its role in society. The more one reads about it, more interesting does business become. To be successful, you have to have your heart in your business, and your business in your heart. – Thomas Watson Sr. Entrepreneurial activities The increasing number of business schools and institutions signify the importance and the need for training the students on rudiments of business management. Developing countries encourage entrepreneurial activities and view it as a strategy to improve the GDP (Gross Domestic Product). More business activity means increased per capita income and increased standard of living. A business must make profit to succeed. Profit is income minus outgo. It is the main incentive for starting a business. Business people weigh each of their decisions in terms of making profit and avoiding loss. In a corporate environment, business has to aim for wealth maximization apart from profit maximization to increase the shareholder’s wealth in the long run. The scope of business is indeed vast. It all depends on how well you have analyzed and understood the nuances of your business activity, in order to survive and sustain in the market. Supply Chain The supply chain in a business activity involves numerous links in the form of manufacturers, supplier of raw materials to the manufacturer, dealers, logistics, intermediaries, consumers, bankers, advertising agencies, insurance agencies and so on. All these elements have to function in a coordinated manner for the benefit of the consumer. Now days, business has become customer-centric rather than product-centric. This serves both the purpose of product development in lieu of customer needs and customer satisfaction. The multitudinous activities involved in bringing raw materials to the factory and the end product from there to the market constitute business. In addition, a business activity has to comply with legal restrictions and government regulations. A business is also expected to discharge its social obligations to consumers, employees, owners and to other interest groups, which have stakes in business directly or indirectly. Planning and organization Planning and organization are two key principles in running a business enterprise as planning sets up a concrete premise on which action plans can be developed and organized activities assures definite success. Modern business is dynamic. Future business will be knowledge based and brainpower will be in greater demand. Organizations have become flat. Eight to twelve organizational layers have been reduced to two or three. Gone are the days of sheltered markets, subsidies, licenses, quotas and restrictions. Businesspersons are asked to stand on their feet, to eliminate inefficiencies, cut down costs and improve productivity. LoL! It might be said that it is the ideal of the employer to have production without employees and the ideal of the employee is to have income without work. –E. F....